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Nautisch woordenboek Scheepstermen terminologie Woordenboek

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Abaft Toward the rear (stern) of the boat
Abeam At right angle or off to the side of the keel of the boat at right angle to the middle of the ship
Above Deck On the deck, not over it see Aloft
Aft Toward the stern of the boat
Aground Touching or fast to the bottom of any body of water on or onto the shore
Ahead In a forward direction
Aids to navigation (aton) Artificial objects to supplement natural landmarks to indicate safe and unsafe waters
Aloft Above or on top of the deck of the boat
Amidship(s) In or toward the part of a boat or ship midway between the bow and the stern toward the middle of the ship or boat
Anchorage A place suitable for anchoring in relation to the wind, seas and bottom
Astern In back of the boat, opposite of ahead
Athwartships At right angles to the centerline of the boat across the ship or boatfrom side to side - Rowboat seats are generally athwartships
Batten down Secure hatches and loose objects both within the hull and on deck
Beacon Baliza A lighted or unlighted fixed aid to navigation attached directly to the earths surface Lights and daybeacons, both constitute beacons
Beam The greatest width of the boat
Bearing The direction of an object expressed either as a true bearing as shown on thechart, or as a bearing relative to the heading of the boat
Below Beneath the deck
Bight The part of the rope or line, between the end and the standing part, on which a knot is ormed a slack part or loop in a rope shallow bay or bend in a coast forming an open bay
Bilge The interior of the hull below the floorboards
Bitter end The last part of a rope or chain the inboard end of the anchor rope
Boat A fairly indefinite term - A waterborne vehicle smaller than a ship, a small craft carried aboard a ship
Boat hook A short shaft with a fitting at one end shaped to facilitate use in putting a line over a piling, recovering an object dropped overboard, or in pushing or fending off
Boom Poles used to support the sails
Bow The forward part of a boat
Bow line A docking line leading from the bow
Bow spring line A bow pivot line used in docking (and undocking), or to prevent the boat from moving forward or astern while made fast to a pier
Bowline knot A knot used to form a temporary loop in the end of a line
Bowsprit A spar extending forward from the bow
Bridge The location from which a vessel is steered and its speed controlled
Broach Sudden, unplanned, and uncontrolled turning of a vessel so that the hull is broadside to the seas or to the wind
Bulkhead A vertical partition separating compartments
Buoy An anchored float used for marking a position on the water or a hazardor a shoal and for mooring
Cabin A compartment for passengers or crew
Capsize To turn over
Cast off To let go
Catamaran A twin hulled boat, with hulls side by-side
Chafing gear Tubing or cloth wrapping used to protect a line from chafing on a rough surface
Channel 1:That part of a body of water deep enough for navigation through an area otherwise not suitable, It is usually marked by a single or double line of buoys and sometimes by range markers 2:The deepest part of a stream, bay, or strait, through which
Chart A map for use by navigators
Chine The intersection of the bottom and sides of a flat or v-bottomed boat
Chock A fitting through which anchor or mooring lines are led, usually U-shaped to reduce chafe
Cleat A fitting, usually with two horn-shaped ends, to which lines are made fast, the classic cleat is almost anvil-shaped
Clove hitch A knot for temporarily fastening a line to a spar or piling
Coil To lay a line down in circular turns
Compass Navigation instrument, either magnetic (showing magnetic north) or gyro (showing true north)
Compass card Part of a compass, the circular card graduated in degrees, it is attached to the compass needles and conforms with the magnet meridian-referenced direction system inscribed with direction, the vessel turns not the card
Current The horizontal movement of water
Cutter Similar to a sloop except sails are arranged so that many combinations of areas may be obtained
Day beacon A fixed navigation aid structure used in shallow waters upon which is placed one or more daymarks
Day mark A signboard attached to a daybeacon to convey navigational information presenting one of several standard shapes (square, triangle, rectangle) and colors (red, green, orange, yellow, or black), daymarks usually have reflective material indicating
Dead ahead Directly ahead
Dead astern Directly aft or behind
Dead reckoning A plot of courses steered and distances traveled through the water
Deck A permanent covering over a compartment, hull or any part of a ship serving as a floor
Displacement The weight of water displaced by a floating vessel
Displacement hull A type of hull that plows through the water, displacing a weight of water equal to its own weight, even when more power is added
Dock A protected water area in which vessels are moored, the term is often used to denote a pier or a wharf
Draft The depth of water a boat draws
Ease To slacken or relieve tension on a line
Ebb tide A receding tide, a period or state of decline
Even keel When a boat is floating on its designed waterline, it is said to be floating on an even keel
Eye of the wind The direction from which the wind is blowing
Eye splice A permanent loop spliced in the end of a line
Fast Said of an object that is secured to another
Fathom A unit of length equal to 6 feet used in measuring water depth
Fender A cushion placed between boats, or between a boat and a pier, to prevent damage
Figure eight knot A knot in the form of a figure eight, placed in the end of a line to prevent the line from passing through a grommet or a block
Flame arrester A safety device, such as a metal mesh protector, to prevent an exhaust backfire from causing an explosion, operates by absorbing heat
Flare The outward curve of a vessels sides near the bow, a distress signal
Flotsam Wreckage or cargo that remains afloat after a ship has sunk, floating refuse or debris
Flying bridge An added set of controls above the level of the normal control station for better visibility, usually open, but may have a collapsible top for shade
Following sea An overtaking sea that comes from astern
Fore and aft In a line parallel to the keel
Forward Toward the bow of the boat
Fouled Any piece of equipment that is jammed or entangled, or dirtied
Founder When a vessel fills with water and sinks
Freeboard The minimum vertical distance from the surface of the water to the gunwale
Gaff A spar to support the head of a gaff sail
Gaff rig Four-sided mainsail defined by two booms, one located on the bottom, perpendicular to the mast, and another, located on top, at an angle from the mast
Galley The kitchen area of a boat
Gangway The area of a ships side where people board and disembark
Gear A general term for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment
Give way vessel A term, from the Navigational Rules, used to describe the vessel which must yield in meeting, crossing, or overtaking situations
Grab rails Hand-held fittings mounted on cabin tops and side for personal safety when moving around the boat
Ground tackle Anchor, anchor rode (line or chain), and all the shackles and other gear used for attachment
Gunwale The upper edge of a boats sides
Halyard Pulls up the sail
Harbour A safe anchorage, protected from most storms may be natural or manmade, with breakwaters and jetties, a place for docking and loading
Hatch An opening in a boats deck fitted with a watertight cover
Head A marine toilet, also the upper corner of a triangular sail
Heading The direction in which a vessels bow points at any given time
Headway The forward motion of a boat, opposite of sternway
Heave to To bring a vessel up in a position where it will maintain little or no headway, usually with the bow into the wind or nearly so
Heel To tip to one side
Helm The wheel or tiller controlling the rudder
Hitch A knot used to secure a rope to another object or to another rope, or to form a loop or a noose in a rope
Hold A compartment below deck in a large vessel, used solely for carrying cargo
Hull The main body of a vessel
Hypolimnion The layer of water in a thermally stratified lake that lies below the thermocline, is noncirculating, and remains perpetually cold
Hypothermia A life threatening condition in which the bodys temperature are subnormal and the entire body cools
Inboard More toward the center of a vessel, inside, a motor fitted inside the boat
Jackstay A strong line or wire stay running from bow to stern along the sides of a boat
Jettison To cast overboard or off, Informal to discard (something) as unwanted or burdensome
Kedge To use an anchor to move a boat by hauling on the anchor rode, a basic anchor type
Keel The centerline of a boat running fore and aft, the backbone of a vessel
Ketch A two-masted sailboat with the smaller after mast stepped ahead of the rudderpost
Knot A measure of speed equal to one nautical mile (6076 feet) per hour, A fastening made by interweaving rope to form a stopper, to enclose or bind an object, to form a loop or a noose, to tie a small rope to an object, or to tie the ends of two s
Lacustrine Of or relating to lakes, living or growing in or along the edges of lakes
Leeward The direction away from the wind, opposite of windward
Leeway The sideways movement of the boat caused by either wind or current
Line Rope and cordage used aboard a vessel
Log A record of courses or operation, also a device to measure speed
Lubbers line A mark or permanent line on a compass indicating the direction forward, parallel to the keel when properly installed
Marconi rig The most common type of sail used today, a triangle-shaped mainsail defined by the mast and one horizontal beam perpendicular to the mast called a boom
Marlinespike A tool for weaving and splicing rope
Mast A spar set upright to support rigging and sails
Monohull A boat with one hull
Mooncusser Legendary opportunists who lured vessels onto shoals during nights when there was no moonlight to illuminate the coastline
Mooring An arrangement for securing a boat to a mooring buoy or a pier
Mooring buoy A buoy secured to a permanent anchor sunk deeply into the bottom
Nautical mile According to Websters: any of various units of distance used for sea and air navigation, an international unit equal to 6076,115 feet (1852 meters), about 1/8 longer than the statute mile of 5280 feet
Navigation The art and science of conducting a boat safely from one point to another
Outboard Toward or beyond the boats sides, a detachable engine mounted on a boats stern
Outdrive inboard/outboard - A propulsion system for boats with an inboard engine operating an exterior drive, with drive shaft, gears, and propeller also called stern drive and Z-drive
Overboard Over the side or out of the boat
Personal watercraft (pwc) Official terminology for jetskis
Painter A line attached to the bow of a boat for use in towing or making fast
Pay out To ease out a line, or let it run in a controlled manner
Pendant The line by which a boat is connected to a mooring buoy, a short rope hanging from a spar having at its free end a spliced thimble or a block
Pennant Any nautical flags that taper to a point and used for identification
Personal flotation device (pfd) Official terminology for life jacket, when properly used a PFD will support a person in the water, available in several sizes and types
Pier A loading/landing platform extending at an angle from the shore
Piloting Navigation by using visible references
Pitch The alternating rise and fall of the bow of a vessel proceeding through waves, the theoretical distance advanced by a propeller in one revolution, tar and resin used for caulking between the planks of a wooden vessel
Pitchpole To turn end over end in very rough seas
Planing hull A type of hull shaped to glide easily across the water at high speed
Propeller A rotating device, with two or more blades, that acts as a screw in propelling a vessel
Quarter The sides of a boat aft of amidships
Quartering sea Sea coming on a boats quarter
Reef To reduce the sail area
Rode The anchor line and/or chain
Roll The alternating motion of a boat, leaning alternately to port and starboard, the motion of a boat about its fore-and-aft axis
Rope In general, cordage as it is purchased at the store, when it comes aboard a vessel and is put to use, it becomes a line
Rope cutter 1:A tool used to cut rope, 2:A device attached to the prop shaft which cuts through ropes, plastic bags, nets, and other materials that may get tangled in the prop
Rudder A vertical plate or board for steering a boat
Running lights Lights required to be shown on boats underway between sundown and sunup
Schooner First seen among 19th-century ships, it is multimasted and furls triangular sails, the foremost mast is always shorter than the others
Scope The ratio of the length of an anchor line, from a vessels bow to the anchor, to the depth of the water
Screw A boats propeller
Scupper An opening in the side of a ship at deck level to allow water to run off, an opening for draining off water, as from a floor or the roof of a building
Sea anchor Any device used to reduce a boats drift before the wind
Secure To make fast
Shackle A U shaped connector with a pin or bolt across the open end
Shear pin A safety device, used to fasten a propeller to its shaft, it breaks when the propeller hits a solid object, thus preventing further damage
Sheet Adjusts a sails angle to the wind
Sheet bend A knot used to join two ropes, functionally different from a square knot in that it can be used between lines of different diameters
Ship A larger vessel usually used for ocean travel, according to Websters, a sailing vessel usually having a bowsprit and three masts each composed of a lower mast, a top mast, and a topgallant mast, also a vessel that is able to carry a boat on bo
Shoal An offshore hazard to navigation at a depth of 16 fathoms (30 meters or 96 feet) or less, composed of unconsolidated material
Shrouds Run from the top of the mast to the port (left) and starboard (right) side of the hull to give sideways support
Slack Not fastened, loose, to loosen
Sloop A single-masted vessel with working sails (main and jib) set fore and aft
Splice To permanently join two ropes by tucking their strands alternately over and under each other
Spring line A pivot line used in docking, undocking, or to prevent the boat from moving forward or astern while made fast to a dock
Squall A sudden, violent wind often accompanied by rain
Square knot A knot used to join two lines of similar size, also called a reef knot
Square-rigger Large ships dating back to the 17th century typically with three masts carrying rectangular sails mounted on horizontal beems called yards
Standing part That part of a line which is made fast, the main part of a line as distinguished from the bight and the end
Stand-on vessel That vessel which continues its course in the same direction at the same speed during a crossing or overtaking situation, unless a collision appears imminent (Was formerly called the privileged vessel)
Starboard The right side of a boat when looking forward
Stern The after part (back) of the boat
Stern line A docking line leading away from the stern
Stow To pack or store away, especially to pack in an orderly, compact manner
Swamp To fill with water, but not settle to the bottom
Tackle A combination of blocks and line used to increase mechanical advantage
Thwart A seat or brace running laterally across a boat, also a rowers seat extending across the boat
Tide The periodic rise and fall of water level in the oceans
Tiller A bar or handle for turning a boats rudder or an outboard motor
Toe rail A small rail around the deck of a boat, the toe rail may have holes in it to attach lines or blocks
Topgallant Relating to the part next above the topmast and below the royal mast
Topsail The sail above the lowermost sail on a square-rigged ship, also the sail set above and sometimes on the gaff in a fore-and-aft rigged ship
Topsides The sides of a vessel between the waterline and the deck, sometimes referring to onto or above the deck
Transom The stern cross-section of a square-sterned boat, any transverse beams secured to the sternpost
Trim Fore and aft balance of a boat
Trimaran A boat with three hulls
Tripline A line fast to the crown of an anchor by means of which it can be hauled out when dug too deeply or fouled, a similar line used on a sea anchor to bring it aboard
True north pole The north end of the earths axis and also called North Geographic Pole, the direction indicated by 000? (or 360?) on the true compass rose
True wind The actual direction from which the wind is blowing
Tumble home Refers to a cabin or hull with a width that becomes narrower as height increases
Turnbuckle A threaded, adjustable rigging fitting, used for stays, lifelines, and sometimes other rigging
Underway Vessel in motion, when not moored, at anchor, or aground
V-bottom A hull with the bottom section in the shape of a V
Variation The angular difference between the magnetic meridian and the geographic meridian at a particular location
Vhf radio A very high frequency electronic communications and direction finding system
Wake Moving waves, track or path that a boat leaves behind when moving across the waters
Waterline A line painted on a hull which shows the point to which a boat sinks when it is properly trimmed
Way Movement of a vessel through the water, such as headway, sternway, or leeway
Wharf A manmade structure bonding the edge of a dock and built along or at an angle to the shoreline, used for loading, unloading, or tying up vessels
Winch A device used to increase hauling power when raising or trimming sails
Windward Toward the direction from which the wind is coming, opposite of leeward
Yaw To swing off course, as when due to the impact of a following or quartering sea
Yawl A two-masted sailboat with the small mizzen mast stepped abaft the rudder post
Ab Ableseaman rating a man able to hand, reef and steer
Aback-(backwinded) The sail filling on wrong side in the casee of square rigged ship may cause the ship to go astern, see All-Aback
Abaft Towards the stern of a vessel
Abaft the beam Aft a line which extends out from amidships
Abandon ship Abandonar An order given to leave a ship when it is in danger
Abandonment A marine insurance term indicating that the cost of repairs to a vessel is more than the cost of the vessel and cargo
Abeam At right angle to the middle of the ships side
Fall aboard One vessel falls foul of another
To lay aboard To sail alongside an enemy vessel with the intention of boarding
Tacks aboard To brace the yards around for sailing close hauled
About On the other tack, to pass through the eye of the wind
Above board Above the deck
Abreast Along side or at right to
Accommodation See Ladder
A-cock-bill The situation of the yards when they are topped up at an angle with the deck, the situation of an anchor when it hangs to the cathead by the ring only
Afloat Resting on the surface of the water
Afore Forward, the opposite of abaft
Aft/after At, near or towards the stern, to move aft is to move to the back of the boat
After leading A line that lead from its point of attachment toward the stern
Aground Touching the bottom
Ahead In the direction of the vessel`s head, wind ahead is from the direction toward which the vessel`s head points (opposite to A-stern)
Ahoy seaman`s call to attract attention
A-hull The situation of a vessel when she lies with all her sails furled and her helm lashed a-lee
A-lee The situation of the helm when it is put in the opposite direction from that in, which the wind blows
All-aback When all the sails are aback
All hands The whole crew
All in the wind When all the sails are shaking
Aloft Up above, up the mast or in the rigging
Aloof At a distance
Amain Suddenly, at once
Amidships In the middle of the ship, either to the length or breadth
Anchorage A sheltered place or area where a boat can anchor
Anchor ball A black ball visible in all direction display in the forward part of a vessel at anchor
Anchor watch See Watch, A member or members of the crew that keep watch and check the drift of ship
Anchor light A white light visible in all direction display in the forward part of a vessel at anchor
An-end When a mast is perpendicular to the deck
A-peek When the cable is hove taut so as to bring the vessel nearly over her anchor, the yards are a-peek when they are topped up by contrary lifts
Apparent wind Wind felt on a vessel underway
Apron A piece of timber fixed behind the lower part of the stern, just above the fore end of the keel, a covering to the vent or lock of a cannon
Arm Yard-Arm, the extremity of a yard, also the lower part of an anchor, crossing the shank and terminating in the flukes
Arming A piece of tallow put in the cavity and over the bottom of a lead-line
A-stern In the direction of the stern, the opposite of ahead
A-taunt See Taunt
Athwart Across
Athwart-ships Across the line of the vessel`s keel
Athwart-hawse Across the direction of a vessel`s head, across her cable
A-trip The situation of the anchor when it is raised clear of the ground, the same as a-weigh
Avast! Or `vast The command to stop, or cease, in any operation
A-weather The situation of the helm when it is put in the direction from which the wind blows
A-weigh The same as A-trip
Awning A covering of canvass over a vessel`s deck, or over a boat, to keep off sun or rain
Back To back an anchor, is to carry out a smaller one ahead of the one by which the vessel rides, to take off some of the strain
To back a sail Is throw it aback
To back and fill Is alternately to back and fill the sails
Backstaff information The ship`s distance from that landmark can be calculated, a navigation instrument used to measure the apparent height of a landmark whose actual height is known, such as the top of a lighthouse
Backwinded when the wind hits the leeward side of the sails
Baggywrinkle Chafing gear made from old ropes
Bagpipe To bagpipe the mizzen, is to lay it aback by bringing the sheet to the weather mizzen rigging
Bail Ironrod partially circling the boom to which sheet block is attached, see Bale, to remove water from the boat
Bailers Openings in the bottom or transom to drain water when sailing, see Self Bailers
Balance-reef A reef in a spanker or fore-and-aft mainsail, which runs from the outer head-earing, diagonally, to the tack, it is the closest reef, and makes the sail triangular, or nearly so
Bale To bale a boat, is to throw water out of her, A fitting on the end of a spar, to which a line may be led
Ballast Is either pigs of iron, stones, or gravel, which last is called single ballast and their use is to bring the ship down to her bearings in the water which her provisions and stores will not do, trim the ballast that is spread it about, and lay it e
Bank A boat is double banked, when men seated on the same thwart pull two oars, one opposite the other
Bar A bank or shoal at the entrance of a harbor
Barber hauler A line attached to the jib or jib sheet, used to adjust the angle of sheeting by pulling the sheet towards the centre line of the boat
Bare-poles The condition of a ship when she has no sail set
Barge A large double-banked boat used by the commander of a vessel, in the navy
Bark 3 Masted with Square rigged on fore and main mast
Barkentine 3 Masted with Square rigged on fore mast only
Barnacle A shellfish often found on a vessel`s bottom
Barratry An unlawful or fraudulent act, or very gross and culpable negligence, by the master or mariners of a vessel in violation of their duty as such, directly prejudicial to the owner or cargo, and without his consent, Smuggling, trading with an enemy,
Battens Thin strips of wood put around the hatches, to keep the tarpaulin down, also put upon rigging to keep it from chafing, a large batten widened at the end, and put upon rigging, is called a Scotchman
Beacon A post or buoy placed over a shoal or bank to warn vessels off, also as a signal-mark on land
Beam The widest part of the boat
Beams Strong pieces of timber stretching across the vessel, to support the decks
On the weather or lee beam Is in a direction to windward or leeward, at right angles with the keel
On beam ends The situation of a vessel when turned over so that her beams are inclined toward the vertical
Beam reach A point of sail where the boat is sailing at a right angle to the apparent wind
Bearing The direction of an object expressed either as a true bearing as shown on the chart, or as a bearing relative to the heading of the boat
The bearings of a vessel The widest part of her below the plank-shear, that part of her hull, which is on the waterline when she is at anchor, and in her proper trim
Bear An object bears so and so, when it is in such a direction from the person looking
To bear down upon a vessel To approach her from the windward
To bear up To put the helm up, keep a vessel off from her course, and move her to leeward
To bear away The same as to bear up, being applied to the vessel instead of to the tiller
To bear-a-hand To make haste
Beating Going toward the direction of the wind, by alternate tacks
Beaufort scale A system for estimating wind strengths
Becalm To intercept the wind, a vessel or highland to windward is said to becalm another, so one sail becalms another
Becket A piece of rope placed so as to confines a spar or another rope, a handle made of rope, in the form of a circle, (as the handle of a chest) Is called a becket
Bees Pieces of plank bolted to the outer end of the bowsprit, to reeve the foretopmast stays through
Belay Change order, to make a line secure to a pin, cleat or bitt
Belay pin Iron or wood pin fitted into railing to secure lines to
Bend To make fast
To bend a sail To make it fast to the yard
To bend a cable To make it fast to the anchor
A bend A knot by which one rope is made fast to another
Bends The strongest part of a vessel`s side, to which the beams, knees, and foot-hooks are bolted, the part between the water`s edge and the bulwarks
Beneaped See Neaped
Bentick shrouds Formerly used, and extending from the futtock-staves to the opposite channels
Berth The place where a vessel lies, the place in which a man sleeps
Between-decks The space between any two decks of a ship
Bibbs Pieces of timber bolted to the hounds of a mast, to support the trestle-trees
Bight The double part of a rope when it is folded, in contradistinction from the ends, any part of a rope may be called the bight, except the ends, also, a bend in the shore, making a small bay or inlet
Bilge The lowest part of the interior hull below the waterline
Bilge-ways Pieces of timber bolted together and placed under the bilge, in launching
Bilge water Water which settles in the bilge
Bilge The largest circumference of a cask
Bilged When the bilge is broken in
Bilge pump A mechanical, electrical, or manually operated pump used to remove water from the bilge
Bill The point at the extremity of the fluke of an anchor
Billet-head See Head
Binnacle A box near the helm, containing the compass
Biscuit Bread intended for naval or military expeditions is now simply flour well kneaded, with the least possible quantity of water, into flat cakes and slowly baked
Bitt A vertically posted above deck used to secure line, the cables are fastened to them, if there is no windlass, there are also bitts to secure the windlass, and on each side of the heel of the bowsprit
Bitter, or bitter-end That part of the cable, which is abaft the bitts
Blade The flat part of an oar, which goes into the water
Blanketing A tactical maneuver whereby a boat uses its sails to cover another competitor`s wind so causing him to slow down
Block A pulley used to gain mechanical advantage
Bluewater sailing Open ocean sailing, as opposed to sailing in protected waters like lakes, bays
Bluff A bluff-bowed or bluff-headed vessel is one, which is full and square forward
Board The stretch a vessel makes upon one tack, when she is beating
Stern-board When a vessel goes stern foremost
By the board Said of masts, when they fall over the side
Boat-hook An iron hook with a long staff, held in the hand, by which a boat is kept fast to a wharf, or vessel
Boatswain (Pronounced bo-s`n), A warrant officer in the navy, who has charge of the rigging, and calls the crew to duty
Bobstays Used to confine the bowsprit down to the stem or cutwater
Bolsters Pieces of soft wood, covered with canvass, placed on the trestle-trees, for the eyes of the rigging to rest upon
Bolts Long cylindrical bars of iron or copper, used to secure or unite the different parts of a vessel
Bolt-rope The rope which goes round a sail, and to which the canvass is sewed
Bonnet An additional piece of canvass attached to the foot of a jib, or a schooner`s foresail, by lacing, taken off in bad weather
Boom A spar used to extend the foot of a fore-and-aft sail or studding-sail
Boom-irons Iron rings on the yards, through which the studding-sail booms traverse
Boom crutch Support for the boom, holding it up out of the way when the boat is at anchor or moored, unlike a gallows frame, a crutch is stowed when sailing
Boom vang A system used to hold the boom down when sailing downwind
Boot stripe A different color strip of paint at the waterline
Boot top A stripe near the waterline
Boot-topping Scraping off the grass, or other matter, this may be on a vessel`s bottom, and daubing it over with tallow, or some mixture
Bound - wind-bound When a vessel is kept in port by a head wind
Bow The forward part of the vessel
Bowline A knot use to form an eye or loop at the end of a rope
Bower A working anchor, the cable of which is bent and reeved through the hawse-hole
Best bower The larger of the two bowers
Bow-grace A frame of old ropes or junk placed round the bows and sides of a vessel, to prevent the ice from injuring her
Bowline (Pronounced bo-lin), A rope leading forward from the leech of a square sail, to keep the leech well out when sailing close-hauled, A vessel is said to be on a bowline, or on a taut bowline, when she is close-hauled
Bowline-bridle The span on the leech of the sail to which the bowline is toggled
Bowse To pull upon a tackle
Bowsies Are essentially long thin deadeyes used to tension the rig
Bowsprit A long spar attached to the Jibboom in the bow, used to secure headsails
Box-hauling Wearing a vessel by backing the head sails
Box To box the compass, is to repeat the thirty-two points of the compass in order
Brace A rope by which a yard is turned about
To brace a yard To turn it about horizontally
To brace up To lay the yard fore fore-and-aft
To brace in To lay it nearer square
To brace aback See Aback
To brace to To brace the head yards a little aback, in tacking or wearing
Brails Ropes by which the foot or lower corners of fore-and-aft sails are hauled up
Brake The handle of a ship`s pump
Break The sudden rise or fall of the deck when not flush
To break bulk To begin to unload
To break ground To lift the anchor from the bottom
To break shear When a vessel, at anchor, in tending, is forced the wrong way by the wind or current, so that she does not lie so well for keeping herself clear of her anchor
Break of the poop Forward end of the poop deck
Breaker A small cask containing water
Breaming Cleaning a ship`s bottom by burning
Breast-fast A rope used to confine a vessel sideways to a wharf, or to some other vessel
Breast-hooks Knees placed in the forward part of a vessel, across the stem, to unite the bows on each side
Breast line A docking line going at a right angle from the boat to the dock
Breast-rope A rope passed round a man in the chains, while sounding
Breech The outside angle of a knee-timber, the after end of a gun
Breeching A strong rope used to secure the breech of a gun to the ship`s side
Bridge deck A partition between the cockpit and the cabin
Bridle Spans of rope attached to the leeches of square sails, to which the bowlines are made fast
Bridle-port The foremost port used for stowing the anchors
Brig A two-Masted vessel with both masts square rigged, on the sternmost mast, the main mast, there is also a gaff sail, an hermaphrodite brig has a brig`s foremast and a schooner`s mainmast
Brigantine A two-Masted vessel fore mast being square rigged
Bright work Varnished woodwork
Broach The boat swings and puts the beam against the waves
Broach-to To fall off so much, when going free, as to bring the wind round on the other quarter and take the sails aback
Broad reach A point of sailing where the boat is moving away from the wind, but not directly downwind
Broadside The whole side of a vessel
Broken-backed The state of a vessel when she is so loosened as to droop at each end
Bucklers Blocks of wood made to fit in the hawse-holes, or holes in the half-ports, when at sea, those in the hawse-holes are sometimes called hawse-blocks
Bulge See Bilge
Bulk The whole cargo when stowed
Stowed in bulk When goods are stowed loose, instead of being stowed in casks or bags, see Break bulk
Bulkhead The vertical partitions that divide the hull into separate compartments are called bulkheads, some are watertight, these watertight bulkheads are so arranged that in case of accident at sea, water would be confined to one compartment only, the
Bulkward - bulwark Solid rail along ship side above deck to prevent men and gear from going overboard
Bull A sailor`s term for a small keg, holding a gallon or two
Bull`s eye A small piece of stout wood with a hole in the centre for a stay or rope to reeve through, without any sheave, and with a groove round it for the strap, which is usually of iron, in addition, a piece of thick glass inserted in the deck to let ligh
Bung A round wood plug inserted in hole to cover a nail screw or bolt
Bunk A sleeping berth
Buoy A floating navigation aid, a floating cask, or piece of wood, attached by a rope to an anchor, to show its position, also floated over a shoal, or other dangerous place as a beacon, to stream a buoy, is to drop it into the water before letting go
Burdened vessel That vessel which, according to the applicable Navigation Rules, must give way to the privileged vessel
Bulwarks The wood work round a vessel, above her deck, consisting of boards fastened to stanchions and timber-heads
Bum-boats Boats which lie alongside a vessel in port with provisions and fruit to sell
Bumpkin Pieces of timber projecting from the vessel, to board the fore tack to and from each quarter, for the main brace-blocks
Bunt The middle of a sail
Buntine (Pronounced buntin) Thin woolen stuff of which a ship`s colors are made
Buntlines Ropes used for hauling up the body of a sail
Burton A single Spanish burton has three single blocks, or two single blocks and a hook in the bight of one of the running parts, a double Spanish burton has three double blocks
Butt The end of a plank where it unites with the end of another
Scuttlebutt A cask with a hole cut in its bilge, and kept on deck to hold water for daily use
Buttock That part of the convexity of a vessel abaft, under the stern, contained between the counter above and the after part of the bilge below, and between the quarter on the side and the stern-post
By the head Said of a vessel when her head is lower in the water than her stern, if her stern is lower, she is by the stern
By the lee See Lee, see Run
Cabin The after part of a vessel, in which the officers live
Cabin sole The bottom space of the enclosed space under the deck of a boat
Cable The rope or chain made fast to the anchor, it is usually 120 fathoms in length
Cable-tier See Tier
Caboose A house on deck, where the cooking is done, Commonly called the Galley
Calk See Caulk
Cambered When the floor of a vessel is higher at the middle than towards the stem and stern
Camel A machine used for lifting vessels over a shoal or bar
Camfering Taking off an angle or edge of a timber
Canister Musket balls, put into thin tin or wooden containers designed to break apart on firing, and langrage as old chain links, scrap metal, horseshoe nails, stones, pottery pieces, etc put into similar containers designed to break apart on firing
Can-hooks Slings with flat hooks at each end, used for hoisting barrels or light casks, the hooks being placed round the chimes, and the purchase hooked to the centre of the slings, Small ones are usually wholly of iron
Cant-pieces Pieces of timber fastened to the angles of fishes and side-trees to supply any part that may prove rotten
Cant-timbers Timbers at the two ends of a vessel, raised obliquely from the keel, lower Half cants (reads cints) Those parts of frames situated forward and abaft the square frames, or the floor timbers which cross the keel
Canvass The cloth of which sails are made, No 1 is the coarsest and strongest
Cap A thick, strong block of wood with two holes through it, one square and the other round, used to confine together the head of one mast and the lower art of the mast next above it
Capstan The drum-like part of the windlass, which is a machine used for winding in rope, cables or chain connected to an anchor cargo
Capstan-bars Heavy pieces of wood by which the capstan is hove round
Carline wood Stringer support for hatches and cabins
Capsize To overturn
Careen To heave a vessel down upon her side by purchases upon the masts, to lie over, when sailing on the wind
Carlings Short and small pieces of timber running between the beams
Carrick-bend A kind of knot
Carrick-bitts The windless bitts
Carry-away To break a spar or part a rope
Cascabel The other term for the knob on a cannon, and comes from Spanish, Catalan, etc Cascabellus = Little bell
Cast To pay a vessel`s head off, in getting under way, on the tack she is to sail upon
Cat The tackle used to hoist the anchor up to the cat-head
Cat-block The block of this tackle
Cat-harpin An iron leg used to confine the upper part of the rigging to the mast
Cat-head Large timbers projecting from the vessel`s side, to which the anchor is raised and secured
Cat`s-paw A kind of hitch made in a rope, a light current of air seen on the surface of the water during a calm
Caulk To fill wooden vessel seams with oakum and cotton using caulking irons and hammer
Cavil See Kevel
Ceiling The inside planking of a vessel
Chafe To rub the surface of a rope or spar
Chafing-gear The stuff put upon the rigging and spars to prevent their chafing
Chains Strong links or plates of iron, the lower ends of which are bolted through the ship`s side to the timbers, their upper ends are secured to the bottom of the dead-eyes in the channels, in addition, used familiarly for the Channels, which see, t
Rudder-chains Lead from the outer and upper end of the rudder to the quarters, they are hung slack
Chain boat A boat fitted up for recovering lost cables, anchors, etc
Chain bolt The bolt at the lower end of the chain plate, which fastens it to the vessel`s side
Chain-plates Plates of iron bolted to the side of a ship, to which the chains and dead-eyes of the lower rigging are connected, also used to support the standing rigging
Chain shot Two cannon balls connected together with either chaian or an iron bar, was used to destroy the rigging other other ships, Chain shot was first used in the 30 Years War, it was introduced by Gustavus Adolfus to be shot at a low, flat trajectory for
Channels Broad pieces of plank bolted edgewise to the outside of a vessel, used for spreading the lower rigging, see Chains
Chanty Shanties are the work songs that were used on the square-rigged ships of the Age of Sail, their rhythms coordinated the efforts of many sailors hauling on lines
Chapelling Wearing a ship round, when taken aback, without bracing the head yards
Charley noble Galley stovepipe
Check A term sometime used for slacking off a little on a brace, and then belaying it
Cheeks The projections on each side of a mast, upon which the trestle-trees rest, the sides of the shell of a block
Cheerly! Quickly, with a will
Chess-trees Pieces of oak, fitted to the sides of a vessel, abaft the fore chains, with a sheave in them, to board the main tack to
Chimes The ends of the staves of a cask, where they come out beyond the head of the cask
Chinse To thrust oakum into seams with a small iron
Chips Small pieces of timber offcuts left over from shipbuilding, traditionally available to shipwrights and carpenters was much abused during the 17th cenury when whole house and furniture were buit
Clamps Thick planks on the inside of vessels, to support the ends of beams, in addition, crooked plates of iron fore-locked upon the trunnions of cannon, any plate of iron made to turn, open, and shut to confine a spar or boom, as, a studdingsail boom, o
Clasp-hook See Clove-hook
Cleat A piece of wood with two horns used in different parts of a vessel to belay ropes to
Clew The lower corner of square sails, and the after corner of a fore-and-aft sail
To clew up To haul up the clew of a sail
Clew-garnet A rope that hauls up the clew of a foresail or mainsail in a square-rigged vessel
Clewline A rope that hauls up the clew of a square sail,the clew-garnet is the clewline of a course
Clinch A half-hitch stopped to its own part
Close-hauled Applied to a vessel, which is sailing with her yards braced up to get as much possible to windward, the same as on a taut bowline, full and by, on the wind
Clove hitch A knot, two half hitches around a spar, post or rope
Clove-hook An iron clasp, in two parts, moving upon the same pivot, and overlapping one another, used for bending chain sheets to the clews of sails
Club-haul To bring a vessel`s head round on the other tack, by letting go the lee anchor and cutting or slipping the cable
Clubbing Drifting down a current with an anchor out
Coaking Uniting pieces of spar by means of tabular projections, formed by cutting away the solid of one piece into a hollow, so as to make a projection in the other, in such a manner that they may correctly fit, the butts preventing the pieces from dr
Coaks Fitted into the beams and knees of vessels to prevent their drawing
Coal tar Tar made from bituminous coal
Coamings Raised work round the hatches, to prevent water going down into the hold
Coat Mast-Coat is a piece of canvass, tarred or painted, placed round a mast or bowsprit, where it enters the deck
Cock-bill To cock-bill a yard or anchor, see A-Cock-Bill
Codline An eighteen thread line
Coil To lay a rope down in circular turns, a coil is a quantity of rope laid up in that manner
Collar An eye in the end or bight of a shroud or stay, to go over the mast-head
Come - come home Said of an anchor when it is broken from the ground and drags
To come up a rope or tackle To slack it off
Companion A wooden covering over the staircase to a cabin
Companion-way The staircase to the cabin
Companion-ladder The ladder leading from the poop to the main deck
Compass The instrument which tells the course of a vessel
Compass-timbers Such as are curved or arched
Concluding-line A small line leading through the centre of the steps of a rope or Jacob`s ladder
Conning, or cunning Directing the helmsman in steering a vessel
Counter That part of a vessel between the bottom of the stern and the wing-transom and buttock
Counter-timbers Short timbers put in to strengthen the counter
To counter-brace yards To brace the head-yards one way and the after-yards another
Courses The common term for the sails that hang from a ship`s lower yards, the foresail is called the fore course and the mainsail the main course
Coxswain (Pronounced cox`n), The person who steers a boat and has charge of her
Cranes Pieces of iron or timber at the vessel`s sides, used to stow boats or spars upon, A machine used at a wharf for hoisting
Crank The condition of a vessel when she is inclined to lean over a great deal and cannot bear much sail, this may be owing to her construction or to her stowage
Creeper An iron instrument, like a grapnell, with four claws, used for dragging the bottom of a harbor or river, to find anything lost
Cringle A short piece of rope with each end spliced into the bolt-rope of a sail, confining an iron ring or thimble
Cross-bars Round bars of iron, bent at each end, used as levers to turn the shank of an anchor
Cross-chocks Pieces of timber fayed across the dead-wood amidships, to make good the deficiency at the heels of the lower futtocks
Cross-jack (Pronounced croj-jack), The sail cross-jack yard, this is the lower crossed yard on the mizzen mast
Cross-pawls Pieces of timber that keeps a vessel together while in her frames
Cross-piece A piece of timber connecting two bitts
Cross-spales Pieces of timber placed across a vessel, and nailed to the frames, to keep the sides together until the knees are bolted
Cross-trees Pieces of oak supported by the cheeks and trestle-trees, at the mast-heads, to sustain the tops on the lower mast, and to spread the topgallant rigging at the topmast-head
Crow-foot A number of small lines rove through the uvrou to suspend an awning by
Crown of an anchor The place where the arms are joined to the shank
Crow`s nest Protected look-out position high on the foremast
Crutch When the sail is not set, a knee or piece of knee-timber, placed inside of a vessel, to secure the heels of the cant-timbers abaft, also the chock upon which the spanker-boom rests
Cuckold`s neck A knot, by which a rope is secured to a spar, the two parts of the rope crossing each other, and seized together
Cuddy A cabin in the fore part of a boat
Cuntline The space between the bilges of two casks stowed side by side, where one cask is set upon the cuntline between two others, they are stowed bilge and cuntline
Cut-water The foremost part of a vessel`s prow, which projects forward of the bows
Cutter A small boat, also a kind of sloop
Dagger A piece of timber crossing all the puppets of the bilge-ways to keep them together
Dagger-knees Knees placed obliquely, to avoid a port
Davits Small cranes, usually located astern that are used to raise and lower smaller boats from the deck to the water, also a spar with a roller or sheave at its end, used for fishing the anchor, called a fish-davit
Ditty bag A small bag for carrying or stowing all personal articles
Deadeye A circular block of wood, with three holes through it, for the lanyards of rigging to reeve through, without sheaves, and with a groove round it for an iron strap
Dead-flat One of the bends, amidships
Dead-lights Ports placed in the cabin windows in bad weather
Dead reckoning A calculation of determining position by using course speed last known position
Dinghy A small boat, usually carried on hauled behind a bigger boat
Dead-rising, or rising-line Those parts of a vessel`s floor, throughout her whole length, where the floor-timber is terminated upon the lower futtock
Dead-water The eddy under a vessel`s counter
Dead-wood Blocks of timber, laid upon each end of the keel, where the vessel narrows
Deck The planked floor of a vessel, resting upon her beams
Deck-stopper A stopper used for securing the cable forward of the windlass or capstan, while it is overhauled, see Stopper
Deep-sea-lead (Pronounced dipsey), The lead used in sounding at great depths
Departure The easting or westing made by a vessel, the bearing of an object on the coast from which a vessel commences her dead reckoning
Derrick A single spar supported by stays and guys, to which a purchase is attached, used to unload vessels, and for hoisting
Displacement The weight of the water displaced by the vessel
Displacement hull speed The theoretical speed that a boat can travel without planing, this speed is 1,34 times the length of a boat at its waterline
Dog A short iron bar, with a fang or teeth at one end, and a ring at the other, used for a purchase, the fang being placed against a beam or knee, and the block of a tackle hooked to the ring
Dog-vane A small vane, made of feathers or buntin, to show the direction of the wind
Dog-watches Half watches of two hours each, from 4 to 6, and from 6 to 8 PM, see Watch
Dolphin A rope or strap round a mast to support the puddening, where the lower yards rest in the slings, in addition a spar or buoy with a large ring in it, secured to an anchor, to which vessels may bend their cables
Dolphin-striker The martingale
Dorade A horn type of vent designed to let air into a cabin and keep water out
Double bottom The double bottom extends from the flat keel to the tank top, it is strongly constructed and is water tight so that in case of accident causing an inrush of water into the double bottom, the ship would still be able to keep afloat
Double sheetbend Join small to medium size rope
Douse To drop a sail quickly
Dowelling A method of coaking, by letting pieces into the solid, or uniting two pieces together by tenoning
Downhaul A rope used to haul down jibs, staysails, and studdingsails
Drabler A piece of canvass laced to the bonnet of a sail, to give it more drop
Draft The depth of water required to float a vessel
Drag A machine with a bag net, used for dragging on the bottom for anything lost
Draught The depth of water which a vessel requires to float her
Draw A sail draws when it is filled by the wind
To draw a jib To shift it over the stay to leeward, when it is aback
Drift Abatimiento A vessels leeway
Drifts Those pieces in the sheer-draught where the rails are cut off
Drive To scud before a gale, or to drift in a current
Driver A spanker
Drop The depth of a sail, from head to foot, amidships
Drum-head The top of the capstan
Dub To reduce the end of a timber
Duck A kind of cloth, lighter and finer than canvass, used for small sails
Dunnage Loose wood or other matters, placed on the bottom of the hold, above the ballast, to stow cargo upon
Dyce Keeping the attitude toward the wind as it is, and no higher, in other words, if the wind changes direction, change course to match, if on the starboard tack (wind coming from the starboard), and the wind backs (anti-clockwise shift), fall off the
Earing A rope attached to the cringle of a sail, by which it is bent or reefed
Ease sheet To let the sheet out slowly loosen a line while maintaining control
Eiking A piece of wood fitted to make good a deficiency in length
Elbow Two crosses in a hawse
Epirb emergency position indicating radio beacon An emergency device that uses a radio signal to alert satellites or passing airplanes to a vessel`s position
Escutcheon The part of a vessels stern where her name is written
Euvrou A piece of wood, by which the legs of the crow-foot to an awning are extended, see Uvrou
Even-keel The situation of a vessel when she is so trimmed that she sits evenly upon the water, neither end being down more than the other
Eye The circular part of a shroud or stay, where it goes over a mast
Eye-bolt A ring through eye, it is called a ring-bolt, a long iron bar, having an eye at one end, driven through a vessel`s deck or side into a timber or beam, with the eye remaining out, to hook a tackle to
An eye-splice A certain kind of splice made with the end of a rope into a loop
Eye of the wind The direction that the wind is blowing from
Eyelet-hole A hole made in a sail for a cringle or roband to go through
The eyes of a vessel A familiar phrase for the forward part
Fall The hauling part of the tackle to which power is applied
Fathom Measurement of six feet
Face-pieces Pieces of wood wrought on the fore part of the knee of the head
Facing Letting one piece of timber into another with a rabbet
Fag A rope is fagged when the end is untwisted
Fairleader A strip of board or plank, with holes in it, for running rigging to lead through, also a block or thimble used for the same purpose
Fake One of the circles or rings made in coiling a rope
Fall That part of a tackle to which the power is applied in hoisting
False-fire A tube when lit burnt with a blue flame, used for signalling
False-keel Pieces of timber secured under the main keel of vessels
Fancy-line A line rove through a block at the jaws of a gaff, used as a downhaul, also a line used for cross-hauling the lee topping-lift
Fashion-pieces The aftermost timbers, terminating the breadth and forming the shape of the stern
Fast A rope by which a vessel is secured to a wharf, there are bow or head, breast, quarter, and stern fasts
Fathom Six feet
Feather to feather an oar in rowing To turn the blade horizontally with the top aft as it comes out of the water
Feather-edged Planks, which have one side thicker than another
Fender Pieces of wood or rope hung over the side to protect a vessel from chafing when alongside another vessel or dock
Fid A block of wood or iron, placed through the hole in the heel of a mast, and resting on the trestletrees of the mast below, this supports the mast, also a wooden pin, tapered, used in splicing large ropes, in opening eyes
Fiddle-block A long shell having one sheave over the other, and the lower smaller than the upper
Fiddlehead See Head
Fife rail A rail around the mast with hole for belaying pins
Figure eight knot A stopper knot for the end of the rope
Figurehead Carved figure on the front of the ship, over the cutwater
Fillings Pieces of timber used to make the curve fair for the mouldings, between the edges of the fish-front and the sides of the mast
Filler See Made mast
Finishing Carved ornaments of the quarter-galley, below the second counter, and above the upper lights
Fish To raise the flukes of an anchor upon the gunwale, also to strengthen a spar when sprung or weakened, by putting in or fastening on another piece
Fish-front, fishes-sides See Made mast
Fish-davit The davit used for fishing an anchor
Fishhook A hook with a pennant, to the end of which the fish-tackle is hooked
Fish-tackle The tackle used for fishing an anchor
Flare When the vessel`s sides go out from the perpendicular, in opposition to falling-home or tumbling-in
Flat A sheet is said to be hauled flat, when it is hauled down close
Flat-aback When a sail is blown with it`s after surface against the mast
Fleet To come up a tackle and draw the blocks apart, for another pull, after they have been hauled two-blocks
Fleet ho! The order given at such times, also to shift the position of a block or fall, so as to haul to more advantage
Flemish coil See French-Fake
Flemish-eye A kind of eye-splice
Floor The bottom of a vessel, on each side of the keelson
Floor timbers Those timbers of a vessel, which are placed across the keel
Flowing sheet When a vessel has the wind free, and the lee clews eased off
Flukes The broad triangular plates at the extremity of the arms of an anchor, terminating in a point called the bill
Fly That part of a flag, which extends from the Union to the extreme end, see Union
Flying jib Sets outside of the jib and the jib-o`-jib outside of that
Fo`c`sle - fore castle The extreme forward compartment of the vessel, that part of the upper deck forward of the fore mast, or, as some say, forward of the after part of the fore channels
Foot The lower end of a mast or sail, see Fore-Foot
Foot-rope The rope stretching along a yard, upon which men stand when reefing or furling, formerly called horses
Foot-waling The inside planks or lining of a vessel, over the floor-timbers
Fore the forward Part of the vessel
Foremast The mast in the forepart of a vessel, nearest the bow
Foresail Is set on the foremast of a schooner or the lowest square sail on the foremast of Sq riggers
Fore-and-aft Lengthwise with the vessel, in opposition to athwart-ships, see Sails
Forefoot A piece of timber at the forward extremity of the keel, upon which the lower end of the stem rests
Fore-ganger A short piece of rope grafted on a harpoon, to which the line is bent
Forelock A flat piece of iron, driven through the end of a bolt, to prevent its drawing
Fore mast The forward mast of all vessels
Forereach To shoot ahead, especially when going in stays
Fore-runner A piece of rag, terminating the stray-line of the log-line
Forge To forge ahead, to shoot ahead, as in coming to anchor, after the sails are furled, see Forereach
Formers Pieces of wood used for shaping cartridges or wads
Fother, or fodder To draw a sail, filled with oakum, under a vessel`s bottom, in order to stop a leak
Foul The term for the opposite of clear
Foul anchor When the cable has a turn round the anchor
Foul hawse When the two cables are crossed or twisted, outside the stem
Founder A vessel founders, when she fills with water and sinks
Fox Made by twisting together two or more rope-yarns, a Spanish fox is made by untwisting a single yarn and laying it up the contrary way
Frames the wooden ribs that form the shape of the hull
Frap To pass ropes round a sail to keep it from blowing loose, also to draw ropes round a vessel which is weakened, to keep her together
Free A vessel is going free, when she has a fair wind and her yards braced in, a vessel is said to be free, when the water has been pumped out of her
Freshen To relieve a rope, by moving its place, as to freshen the nip of a stay is to shift it, so as to prevent its chafing through, to freshen ballast is to alter its position
French-fake To coil a rope with each fake outside of the other, beginning in the middle, if there are to be riding fakes, they begin outside and go in and so on, this is called a Flemish coil
Full-and-by Sailing close-hauled on a wind, the order given to the man at the helm to keep the sails full and at the same time close to the wind
Furl To roll a sail up snugly on a yard or boom, and secure it
Futtock-plates Iron plates crossing the sides of the top-rim perpendicularly, the dead-eyes of the topmast rigging are fitted to their upper ends, and the futtock-shrouds to their lower ends
Futtock-shrouds Short shrouds, leading from the lower ends of the futtock-plates to a bend round the lower mast, just below the top
Futtock-staff A short piece of wood or iron, seized across the upper part of the rigging, to which the catharpin legs are secured
Futtock-timbers Those timbers between the floor and naval timbers, and the top-timbers, there are two - the lower, which is over the floor, and the middle, which is over the naval timber, the naval timber is sometimes called the ground futtock
Gaff A free-swinging spar attached to the top of a fore-and-aft sail
Gaff-topsail A light sail set over a gaff, the foot being spread by it
Gage The depth of water of a vessel, also her position as to another vessel, as having the weather
Galley The kitchen of a ship
Gallows A frame used to rest the boom when the sail is down
Gammoning The lashing by which the bowsprit is secured to the cutwater
Gang-casks Small casks, used for bring water on board in boats
Gangway That part of a vessel`s side, amidships, where people pass in and out of the vessel
Gantline See Girtline
Garboard-strake The range of planks next the keel, on each side
Garland A large rope, strap or grommet, lashed to a spar when hoisting it inboard
Garnet A purchase on the main stay, for hoisting cargo
Gaskets Ropes or pieces of plated stuff, used to secure a sail to the yard or boom when it is furled, they are called a bunt, quarter, or yardarm gasket, according to their position on the yard
Gasket Line used to secure a furled sail to the boom or yards
Genoa largest Jib on a sailboat, also known as a genny
Gimblet To turn an anchor round by its stock, to turn anything round on its end
Girt The situation of a vessel when her cables are too taut
Girtline A rope rove through a single block aloft, making a whip purchase, commonly used to hoist rigging by, in fitting it
Give way! An order to men in a boat to pull with fore force, or to begin pulling, the same as, Lay out on your oars! Or, Lay out
Glut A piece of canvass sewed into the center of a sail near the head, it has an eyelet-hole in the middle for the bunt-jigger or becket to go through
Gmt Greenwich Meridian Time also known as Universal Time or Zulu time
Gps Global Positioning System, a satellite-based radio navigation used to determine position
Gob-line - gaub-line A rope leading from the martingale inboard, the same as back-rope
Goodgeon See Gudgeon
Gooseneck The fitting, which secures the boom to the mast
Goose-winged The situation of a course when the buntlines and lee clew are hauled up, and the weather clew down
Gores The angles at one or both ends of such cloths as increase the breadth or depth of a sail
Goring-cloths Pieces cut obliquely and put in to add to the breadth of a sail
Grafting A manner of covering a rope by weaving together yarns
Grains An iron with four or more barbed points to it, used for striking small fish
Grapnel A small anchor with several claws, used to secure boats
Grappling irons Crooked irons, used to seize and hold fast another vessel
Grating Open latticework of wood, used principally to cover hatches in good weather
Greave To clean a ship`s bottom by burning
Gripe The outside timber of the forefoot, under water, fastened to the lower stem-piece, a vessel gripes when she tends to come up into the wind
Gripes Bars of iron, with lanyards, rings and clews, by which a large boat is lashed to the ringbolts of the deck, those for a quarter-boat are made of long strips of matting, going round her and set taut by a lanyard
Grommet A ring formed of rope, by laying round a single strand
Ground tackle A collective term for the anchor and anchor gear and everything used in securing a vessel at anchor
Guess-warp - guess-rope A rope fastened to a vessel or wharf, and used to tow a boat by or to haul it out to the swing-boom-end, when in port
Gun-tackle purchase A purchase made by two single blocks
Gunwale (gunnel) Barandilla The upper railing of a boat`s side
Guy A rope attaching to anything to steady it, and bear it one way and another in hoisting
Gybe (Pronounced jibe), to shift over the boom of a fore-and-aft sail
Hail To speak or call to another vessel, or to men in a different part of a ship
Half hitch Knot
Halyards lines used to haul up the sail and the wooden poles (boom and gaff) that hold the sails in place
Hammock A piece of canvass, hung at each end, in which seamen sleep
Hand To hand a sail is to furl it
Bear-a-hand Make haste
Lend-a-hand Assist
Hand-over-hand Hauling rapidly on a rope, by putting one hand before the other alternately
Hand-lead A small lead, used for sounding in rivers and harbors
Handsomely Slowly, carefully, Used for an order, as, Lower handsomely
Handspike A long wooden bar, used for heaving at the windlass
Handy billy A watch-tackle
Hanks Rings or hoops of wood, rope, or iron, round a stay, and seized to the luff of a fore-and-aft sail
Harpings The fore part of the wales, which encompass the bows of a vessel, and are fastened to the stem
Harpoon A spear used for striking whales and other fish
Hatch or hatchway An opening in the deck for entering below, covers for these openings
Hatch-bar An iron bar going across the hatches to keep them down
Haul - haul her wind Said of a vessel when she comes up close upon the wind
Hawse The situation of the cables before a vessel`s stem, when moored, also the distance upon the water a little in advance of the stem as, a vessel sails athwart the hawse, or anchors in the hawse of another
Open hawse When a vessel rides by two anchors, without any cross in her cables
Hawse-hole The hole in the bows through which the cable runs
Hawse-pieces Timbers through which the hawse-holes are cut
Hawse-block A block of wood fitted into a hawse-hole at sea
Hawser A large rope used for various purposes, as warping, for a spring
Hawser-laid - cable-laid rope Is rope laid with nine strands against the sun
Hawse hole A hole in the hull for mooring lines to run through
Haze A term for punishing a man by keeping him unnecessarily at work upon disagreeable or difficult duty
Head The work at the prow of a vessel, if it is a carved figure, it is called a figure-head if simple carved work, bending over and out, a billet-head and if bending in, like the head of a violin, a fiddle-head, also the upper end of a mast, called a m
Head-ledges The wartship pieces that frame the hatchways
Headsails Any sail forward of the foremast
Head Ship toilet
Heart A block of wood in the shape of a heart, for stays to reeve through
Heart-yarns The center yarns of a strand
Heave short To heave in on the cable until the vessel is nearly over her anchor
Heave-to To put a vessel in the position of lying-to, see Lie-to
Heave in stays To go about in tacking
Heaver A short wooden bar, tapering at each end, used as a purchase
Heel The after part of the keel, also the lower end of a mast or boom, also the lower end of the sternpost
To heel To lie over on one side
Heeling The square part of the lower end of a mast, through which the fid-hole is made
Helm The machinery by which a vessel is steered, including the rudder, tiller, wheel, etc applied more particularly, perhaps, to the tiller steering apparatus
Helm-port The hole in the counter through which the rudder-head passes
Helm-port-transom A piece of timber placed across the lower counter, inside, at the height of the helm-port, and bolted through every timber, for the security of that port
High and dry The situation of a vessel when she is aground, above watermark
Hitch A peculiar manner of fastening ropes
Hog A flat rough broom, used for scrubbing the bottom of a vessel
Hogged The state of a vessel when, by any strain, she is made to droop at each end, bringing her center up
Hold the space for cargo below the deck of the ship
Hold water To stop the progress of a boat by keeping the oar-blades in the water
Holy-stone A large stone, used for cleaning a ship`s decks
Home The sheets of a sail are said to be home, when the clews are hauled chock out to the sheave-holes, an anchor comes home when it is loosened from the ground and is hove in toward the vessel
Hood A covering for a companion hatch, skylight, etc
Hood-ends, or hooding-ends, or whooden-ends Those ends of the planks, which fit into the rabbets of the stem or sternpost
Hook-and-butt The scarfing, or laying the ends of timbers over each other
Horns The jaws of booms, also the ends of crosstrees
Horse See Foot-rope
Horse Traveler-Metal or rope traveler to sheet a sail
Hounds Those projections at the masthead serving as shoulders for the top or trestle-trees to rest upon
House To house a mast, is to lower it almost half its length, and secure it by lashing its heel to the mast below
Housing - house-line (Pronounced houze-lin), A small cord made of three small yarns, and used for seizings
Hull The main body of the boat, not including the deck, mast or cabins, see A-Hull
Hurricane A strong tropical revolving storm of force 12(65 mph) or higher in the Northern Hemisphere, hurricanes revolve in a clockwise direction
Hypothermia The loss of body heat is the greatest danger for anyone in the water, as the body loses its heat, body functions slow, this can quickly lead to death
In-and-out A term sometimes used for the scantline (sic) of the timbers, the moulding way, and particularly for those bolts that are driven into the hanging and lodging knees, through the sides, which are called in-and-out bolts
In irons A sailboat with its bow pointed directly into the wind, preventing the sails from filling properly so that the boat can move
Inner-post A piece brought on at the fore side of the main-post, and generally continued as high as the wing-transom, to seat the other transoms upon
Jack A common term for the jack-cross-trees, see Union
Jack-block A block used in sending topgallant masts up and down
Jack-cross-trees Iron cross-trees at the head of long topgallant masts
Jack line A strong line, or a wire stay running fore and aft along the sides of a boat to which a safety harness can be attached
Jack-staff A short staff, raised at the bowsprit cap, upon which the Union Jack is hoisted
Jack-stays Ropes stretched taut along a yard to bend the head of the sail to, also long strips of wood or iron, used now for the same purpose
Jack-screw A purchase, used for stowing cotton
Jacobs ladder A rope ladder with wooden steps
Jaws The inner ends of booms or gaffs, hollowed in
Jeers Tackles for hoisting the lower yards
Jettison to throw overboard
Jetty A man made structure projecting from the shore, breakwater protecting a harbor entrance
Jewel-blocks Single blocks at the yard-arms, through which the studdingsail halyards lead
Jib Triangular foresail in front of the foremast, flying jib sets outside of the jib and the jib-o`-jib outside of that
Jibboom Spar forward of bowsprit to which the the tack of the jib is lashed
Jib sheet The lines that lead from the clew of the jib
Jigger Aft sail on the mizzenmast of a yawl or a ketch, after mast (4th mast) on schooner or sailing ship carrying a spanker, a small tackle used about decks or aloft
Jibe To go from one tack to the other when running with the wind coming over the stern
Jolly-boat A small boat, usually hoisted at the stern
Junk Condemned rope, cut up and used for making mats, swabs, oakum
Jury-mast A temporary mast, rigged at sea, in place of one lost
Keckling Old rope wound round cables, to keep them from chafing, see Rounding
Kedge A small anchor, with an iron stock, used for warping, to kedge is to warp a vessel ahead by a kedge and hawser
Keel The timber at the very bottom of the hull fore and aft to which frames are attached, it may be composed of several pieces scarfed and bolted together, see False Keel
Keel-haul To pass a person backwards and forwards under a ship`s keel, for certain offences
Keelson A timber placed over the keel on the floor-timbers, and running parallel with it
Kentledge Pig-iron ballast, laid each side of the keelson
Ketch-two-masted boats the after mast shorter, but with a ketch the after mast is forward of the rudder post
Kevel - cavel A strong piece of wood, bolted to some timber or stanchion, used for belaying large ropes to
Kevel-heads Timber-heads, used as kevels
King spoke Marked top spoke on a wheel when the rudder is centered
Kink A Twist In A Rope
Knees Supporting braces used for strength when two parts are joined
Knockabout A type of schooner without a bowsprit
Knight-heads - bollard timbers The timbers next the stem on each side, and continued high enough to form a support for the bowsprit
Knees Crooked pieces of timber, having two arms, used to connect the beams of a vessel with her timbers, see Dagger
Lodging-knees Placed horizontally, having one arm bolted to a beam, and the other across two of the timbers
Knee of the head Placed forward of the stem, and supports the figurehead
Knittles - nettles The halves of two adjoining yarns in a rope, twisted up together, for pointing or grafting, also small line used for seizings and for hammock-clews
Knock-off! An order to leave off work
Knot A division on the log line, answering to a nautical mile of distance, a speed of one nautical mile per hour, the intertwining the parts of one or more ropes, to crown a knot, is to pass the strands over and under each other above the knot, etymolo
Labor A vessel is said to labor when she rolls or pitches heavily
Lacing Rope used to lash a sail to a gaff, or a bonnet to a sail, also a piece of compass or knee timber, fayed to the back of the figure-head and the knee of the head, and bolted to each
Land-fall The making land after being at sea, a good land-fall, is when a vessel makes the land as intended
Land ho! The cry used when land is first seen
Langrel See Canister
Langrace See Canister
Lanyard A shot line used for making anything fast or used as a handle, ropes rove through dead-eyes for setting up rigging
Larboard The left side of a vessel, looking forward
Larbowlines The familiar term for the men in the larboard watch
Large A vessel is said to be going large, when she has the wind free
Latchings Loops on the head rope of a bonnet, by which it is laced to the foot of the sail
Latitude The distance north or south of the equator measured and expressed in degrees
Lazyjacks lines from topping lifts to under boom, which act as a net to catch the sails when lowered
Launch large The Long-Boat
Lay To come or to go as, Lay aloft! Lay forward! Lay aft! Also the direction which the strands of a rope are twisted as from left to right, or from right to left
Lazarette A storage compartment in the stern
Leach See Leech
Leachline A rope used for hauling up the leach of a sail
Lead A piece of lead in the shape of a cone or pyramid, with a small hole at the base, and a line attached to the upper end, used for sounding, see Hand-Lead, Deep-Sea-Lead
Leading-wind A fair wind, more particularly applied to a wind abeam or quartering
League Measure of distance three miles in length
Leak A hole or breach in a vessel, at which the water comes in
Lee The side sheltered from the wind, if a vessel has the wind on her starboard side, that will be the weather, and the larboard will be the lee side, under the lee of anything, is when you have that between you and the wind, by the lee, the situation
Lee-board A board fitted to the lee side of flat-bottomed boats, to prevent their drifting to leeward
Lee-gage See Gage
Leech After edge of a fore and aft sail
Leefange An iron bar, upon which the sheets of fore-and-aft sails traverse, also a rope rove through the cringle of a sail which has a bonnet to it, for hauling in, so as to lace on the bonnet
Leeward (Pronounced lu-ard), the lee side, in a direction opposite to that from which the wind blows, which is called windward, the opposite of lee is weather, and of leeward is windward
Leeway What a vessel loses by drifting to leeward, when sailing close-hauled with all sail set, a vessel should make no leeway, if the topgallant sails are furled, it is customary to allow one point, under close-reefed topsails, two points when under
Ledges Small pieces of timber placed athwart-ships under the decks of a vessel, between the beams
Lie-to is to stop the progress of a vessel at sea, either by counterbracing the yards, or by reducing sail so that she will make little or no headway, but will merely come to and fall off by the counteraction of the sails and helm
Life-lines Ropes carried along yards, booms, or at any part of the vessel, for men to hold on by
Lift rope or tackle, going from the yardarms to the masthead, to support and move the yard, also a term applied to the sails when the wind strikes them on the leeches and raises them slightly
Light To move or lift anything along as to Light out to windward! That is, haul the sail over to windward, the light sails are all above the topsails, also the studdingsails and flying jib
Lighter Large boat, used in loading and unloading vessels
Limbers - limber-holes Holes cut in the lower part of the floor-timbers, next the keelson, forming a passage for the water fore-and-aft
Limber-boards Placed over the limbers, and are movable
Limber-rope A rope rove fore-and-aft through the limbers, to clear them if necessary
Limber-streak The streak of foot-waling nearest the keelson
Lines ropes used for various purposes aboard a boat
Lines drawing A plan showing, in three views, the moulded surface of the vessel
List The inclination of a vessel to one side as, a list to port, or a list to starboard
Lizard A piece of rope, sometimes with two legs, and one or more iron thimbles spliced into it, it is used for various purposes, one with two legs, and a thimble to each, is often made fast to the topsail for the buntlines to reeve through, a single one
Locker A chest or box, to stow anything away in
Chain-locker Where the chain cable are kept
Boatswain`s locker Where tools and small stuff for working upon rigging are kept,Log A line with a piece of board, called the log-chip, attached to it, wound upon a reel, and used for ascertaining the ship`s rate of sailing
Log - logbook A journal kept by the chief officer, in which the situation of the vessel, winds, weather, courses, distances, and everything of importance that occurs, is noted down
Longboat The largest boat in a merchant vessel, when at sea, it is carried between the fore and main masts
Longers The longest casks, stowed next the keelson
Longitude The distance in degrees east or west of the meridian at Greenwich, England
Longitudinals These run fore and aft from bulkhead to bulkhead, except in the shelter and upper decks, where some are broken by hatch interference, they give strength and rigidity to the framework and shell, they are connected and welded at the flange of the ch
Long-timbers Timbers in the cant-bodies, reaching from the deadwood to the head of the second futtock
Loof That part of a vessel where the planks begin to bend as they approach the stern
Loom That part of an oar which is within the row-lock, also to appear above the surface of the water to appear larger than nature, as in a fog
Luff up To steer the boat more into the wind, thereby causing the sails to flap or luff
Luff-tackle A purchase composed of a double and single block
Luff-upon-luff A luff tackle applied to the fall of another
Lugger A small vessel carrying lug-sails
Lug-still A sail used in boats and small vessels, bent to a yard, which hangs obliquely to the mast
Lurch The sudden rolling of a vessel to one side
Lying-to See Lie-To
Made A made mast or block is one composed of different pieces, a ship`s lower mast is a made spar, her topmast is a whole spar
Mainmast The tallest mast of the ship, on a schooner the mast furthest aft
Mainsail The sail set on the mainmast, the lowest square sail on the mainmast
Marlinespike A tool for opening the strands of a rope while splicing
Mall - maul (Pronounced mawl), A heavy iron hammer used in driving bolts, see Top-Maul
Mallet A small maul, made of wood as caulking-mallet, also serving-mallet, used in putting service on a rope
Manger A coaming just within the hawsehole
Man-of-war A warship intended for comba, usually carrying between 20 and 120 guns
Manropes Ropes used in going up and down a vessel`s side
Mare clausum A navigable body of water, such as sea, that is under the jurisdication of one nation and closed to all others
Mare liberum A navigable body of water, such as sea, that is open to navigation by vessels of all nations
Marl To wind or twist a small line or rope round another
Marline (Pronounced mar-lin), small two-stranded stuff, used for marling, a finer kind of spunyarn
Marling-hitch A kind of hitch used in marling
Marlinspike An iron pin, sharpened at one end, and having a hole in the other for a lanyard, used both as a fid and a heaver
Marry To join ropes together by a worming over both
Martingale A short perpendicular spar, under the bowsprit-end, used for guying down the head-stays, see Dolphin Striker
Mast A spar set upright from the deck, to support rigging, yards and sails, masts are whole or made
Mat Made of strands of old rope, and used to prevent chafing
Mate An officer under the master
Maul See Mall
Mend To mend service, is to add more to it
Meshes The places between the lines of netting
Mess Any number of men who eat or lodge together
Messenger A rope used for heaving in a cable by the capstan
Midships The timbers at the broadest part of the vessel, see Amid-Ships
Miss-stays To fail of going about from one tack to another
Mizzenmast The aftermost mast of a ship, the spanker is sometimes called the mizzen
Monkey block A small single block strapped with a swivel, also the blocks fasterned to the yard through which buntlines are roved
Monkey jacket Close fitting serge jacket, also known as Jackanaapes coat
Monkey rail In older wooden vessels, a topgallant rail above the quarter-deck or poop bulwarks (quarter boards), in modern vessels, a small rail above ship`s stern enclosing standing-room for an officer supervising handling of mooring-lines in docking
Moon-sail A small sail sometimes carried in light winds, above a skysail
Moor To secure by two anchors
Mooring The act of confining and securing a ship in, a particular station, by chains or cables, which are either fastened to the adjacent shore, or to anchors in the bottom, a ship may be either moored by the head, (affourcher, Fr), or by the head and ste
Moorings Are usually an assemblage of anchors, chains, and bridles, laid athwart the bottom of the river, or haven, to ride the shipping contained therein, the anchors, employed on this occasion, have rarely more than one fluke, which is sunk in the river
Mortice A morticed block is one made out of a whole block of wood with a hole cut in it for the sheave in distinction from a made block
Moulds The patterns by which the frames of a vessel are worked out
Mouse To put turns of rope yarn or spunyarn round the end of a hook and its standing part, when it is hooked to anything, so as to prevent it slipping out
Mousing A knot or puddening, made of yarns, and placed on the outside of a rope
Muffle Putting mats or canvass round their looms in the rowlocks muffles oars
Munions The pieces that separate the lights in the galleries
Murderer Small iron or brass hand gun used for anti-personnel defence (agains boarders) aboard ship, a spike was provide to allow the weapon to used a various places around the ship
Naval hoods - hawse bolsters Plank above and below the hawse-holes
Navigable An area with sufficient depth of water to permit vessel passage
Navigation The art of getting vessel from one port to the next port
Nautical mile nm = 1853 meters = 2000 yards = 6080 feet Contrary to some earlier replies, a nautical mile is (or was) the length of a minute of latitude at the latitude in question, not at the equator (Since the Earth isn`t a perfect sphere, the length on the s
Neaped - beneaped The situation of a vessel when she is aground at the height of the spring tides
Near Close to wind, Near! the order to the helmsman when he is too near the wind
Net tonnage Vessels measurement of cargo carrying capacity
Netting Network of rope or small lines, used for stowing away sails or hammocks
Nettles See Knittles
Ninepin block A block in the form of a ninepin, used for a fair-leader in the rail
Nip A short turn in a rope
Nippers A number of yarns marled together, used to secure a cable to the messenger
Nock The forward upper end of a sail that sets with a boom
Nun buoy Red tapered navigation buoy
Nut Projections on each side of the shank of an anchor, to secure the stock to its place
Oakum tarred hemp or manila fibers made from old and condemned ropes, which have been picked apart, they were used for caulking the seams of decks and sides of a wooden ship in order to make them watertight
Oar A long wooden instrument with a flat blade at one end, used for propelling boats
Off-and-on To stand on different tacks towards and from the land
Offing Distance from the shore
Orlop The lower deck of a ship of the line or that on which the cables are stowed
Out-haul A rope used for hauling out the clew of a boom sail
Out-rigger - outrigger A spar rigged out to windward from the tops or cross-trees, to spread the breast-backstays
Overhaul To overhaul a tackle, is to let go the fall and pull on the leading parts so as to separate the blocks, to overhaul a rope is generally to pull a part through a block so as to make slack, to overhaul rigging is to examine it
Over-rake Said of heavy seas, which come over a vessel`s head when she is at anchor, head to the sea
Painter A rope attached to the bows of a boat, used for making her fast
Palm A piece of leather fitted over the hand, with an iron for the head of a needle to press against in sewing upon canvass, also the fluke of an anchor
Panch See Paunch
Parbuckle To hoist or lower a spar or cask by single ropes passed round it
Parcel a rope Is to put a narrow piece of canvass (called parceling) round it before the service is put on
Parcelling See Parcel
Parliament-heel The situation of a vessel when she is careened
Parral The rope by which a yard is confined to a mast at its center
Part To break a rope
Partners A frame-work of short timber fitted to the hole in a deck, to receive the heel of a mast or pump
Paunch mat A thick mat, placed at the slings of a yard or elsewhere
Pawl A short bar of iron, which prevents the capstan or windlass from turning back, to pawl is to drop a pawl and secure the windlass or capstan
Pay-off When a vessel`s head falls off from the wind, to pay, to cover over with tar or pitch
Pay out To feed line over the side of the boat, hand over hand
Pazaree A rope attached to the clew of the foresail and rove through a block on the swinging boom, used for guying the clews out when before the wind
Peak Outer end of the gaff -upper aft corner of a gaff sail, see A-Peak, a stay-peak is when the cable and fore stay form a line, a short stay-peak is when the cable is too much in to form this line
Pendant - pennant A long narrow piece of bunting, carried at the masthead, broad pennant is a square piece, carried in the same way, in a commodore`s vessel, a rope to which a purchase is hooked, a long strap fitted at one end to a yard or masthead, with a hook
Pfd - personal flotation devices Better known as life jackets
Pillar of the hold A main stanchion with notches for descent and ascent
Pillow A block, which supports the inner end of the bowsprit
Pilothouse A small cabin on the deck of the ship that protects the steering wheel and the crewman steering
Pin The axis on which a sheave turns, also a short piece of wood or iron to belay ropes to
Pink-stern A high, narrow stern
Pinky "New England fishing and trading vessel usually 50" to 70" generally schooner rigged with or without a foresail, built with pointed stern same shape as the bow
Pinnace A boat, in size between the launch and a cutter
Pintle A metal bolt, used for hanging a rudder
Pitch A resin taken from pine, and used for filling up the seams of a vessel
Pitching The movement of a ship, by which she plunges her head and after-part alternately into the hollow of the sea
Planking wood boards that cover the frames outside the hull
Planks Thick, strong boards, used for covering the sides and decks of vessels
Plat A braid of foxes, see Fox
Plate See Chain-Plate
Plug A piece of wood, fitted into a hole in a vessel or boat, so as to let in or keep out water
Point To take the end of a rope and work it over with knittles, see Reef-Points
Pole Applied to the highest mast of a ship, usually painted, as skysail pole
Pommelion A name given by seamen to the cascable or hindmost knob on the breech of a cannon, the pomelions were used to keep damp out of cannons during non-fighting periods and keep rust (and/or salt) from building up inside the barrel, this was probably 99
Poop A deck raised over the after part of the spar deck, a vessel is pooped when the sea breaks over her stern
Poppets Perpendicular pieces of timber fixed to the fore-and-aft part of the bilge-ways in launching
Port Used instead of larboard, to port the helm, is to put it to the larboard
Port - port-hole Holes in the side of a vessel, to point cannon out of, see Bridle
Portage To carry goods or boat between two navigatible points
Portoise The gunwale, the yards are a-portoise when they rest on the gunwale
Port-sills See Sills
Preventer Line and/or tackle which limits the movement of the boom, usually for the purpose of preventing accidents or an extra rope, to assist another
Predreadnoughts Had a main battery of 10-12 inch guns, and a secondary battery of 5-6 inch guns, semi-dreadnoughts included an intermediate battery of 8-10 inch guns, dreadnoughts had a uniform main battery of 10-12 inch guns, in number at least twice as many as
Price A quantity of spunyarn or rope laid close up together
Prize An enemy vessel captured
Cargo From captured ship
Prize money The proceeds from the sale of captured vessells aearded by the Admiralty
Pricker A small marlinspike, used in sail-making, it generally has a wooden handle
Puddening A quantity of yarns, matting or oakum, used to prevent chafing
Pump-brake The handle to the pump
Purchase Any sort of mechanical power employed in raising or removing heavy bodies
To purchase The anchor, is to loosen it out of the ground
Q flag All yellow signal flag meaning My vessel is healthy and I request free pratique
Quarter The part of a vessel`s side between the after part of the main chains and the stern, the quarter of a yard is between the slings and the yard-arm, the wind is said to be quartering, when it blows in a line between that of the keel and the beam and
Quarter-block A block fitted under the quarters of a yard on each side the slings, for the clewlines and sheets to reeve through
Quarter-deck That part of the upper deck abaft the main-mast
Quarter-master A petty officer in a man-of-war, who attends the helm and binnacle at sea, and watches for signals
Quartering sea Winds and waves on a boat`s quarter
Quay Wharf used to discharge cargo
Queen topsail Small stay sail located between the foremast and mainmast
Quick-work That part of a vessel`s side which is above the chain-wales and decks, so called in ship-building
Quilting A coating about a vessel, outside, formed of ropes woven together
Quoin A wooden wedge for the breech of a gun to rest upon
Rabbet An incission in a piece of timber to receive the planks or timbers secured to it eg the garboard and the keel
Race A strong, rippling tide
Rack To seize two ropes together, with cross-turns, also a fair-leader for running rigging
Rack-block A course of blocks made from one piece of wood, for fair-leaders
Raddle Used to decribe material used to make flat gaskets for securing boats when hoisted on to the davits
Rake The inclination of a mast from the perpendicular
Ramline A line used in mast-making to get a straight middle line on a spar
Range of cable A quantity of cable, more or less, placed in order for letting go the anchor or paying out
Rating The status of a seaman in officers it is their rank
Ratlines (Pronounced rat-lins), lines running across the shrouds, horizontally, like the rounds of a ladder, and used to step upon in going aloft
Rattle down rigging To put ratlines upon rigging, it is still called rattling down, though they are now rattled up beginning at the lowest
Razee A vessel of war, which has had one deck, cut down
Red jack Red flag used by pirates prior to 1700 replace by black flag
Under the red Jack Pirates
Reef To reduce a sail by taking in upon its head, if a square sail, and its foot, if a fore-and-aft sail, a reef is all of the sail that is comprehended between the head of the sail and the first reef-band, or between two reef-bands
Reefing The operation of reducing a sail by taking in one or more of the reefs
Reef-bands Pieces of canvass, about six inches wide, sewed on the fore part of sails, where the points are fixed for reefing the sail
Reef points Short Line the reef band to secure the foot of the sail
Reef-tackle A tackle used to haul the middle of each leech up toward the yard, so that the sail may be easily reefed
Reeve To pass the end of a rope through a block, or any aperture
Relieving tackle A tackle hooked to the tiller in a gale of wind, to steer by in case anything should happen to the wheel or tiller-ropes
Render To pass a rope through a place, a rope is said to render or not, according as it goes freely through any place
Rib-bands Long, narrow, flexible pieces of timber nailed to the outside of the ribs, so as to encompass the vessel lengthwise
Ribs A figurative term for a vessel`s timbers
Ride at anchor To lie at anchor, also to bend or bear down by main strength and weight as, to ride down the main tack
Riders Interior timbers placed occasionally opposite the principal ones, to which they are bolted, reaching from the keelson to the beams of the lower deck, also, casks forming the second tier in a vessel`s hold
Rigging Aparejo The lines that hold up the masts and move the sails (standing and running rigging)
Right To right the helm, is to put it amidships
Rim The edge of a top
Ring The iron ring at the upper end of an anchor, to which the cable is bent
Ring-bolt An eye-bolt with a ring through the eye, see Eye-Bolt
Ring-tail A small sail, shaped like a jib, set abaft the spanker in light winds
Roach A curve in the foot of a square sail, by which the clews are brought below the middle of the foot, the roach of a fore-and-aft sail is in its forward leech
Road - roadstead An anchorage at some distance from the shore
Robands See Rope-Band
Rode The anchor line and/or chain
Rolling tackle Tackles used to steady the yards in a heavy sea
Rombowline Condemned canvass, rope
Rope-bands - robands Small pieces of two or three yarn spunyarn or marline, used to confine the head of the sail to the yard or gaff
Rope-yarn A thread of hemp, or other stuff, of which a rope is made
Rough-tree An unfinished spar
Round in To haul in on a rope, especially a weather-brace
Round up To haul up on a tackle
Rounding A service of rope, hove round a spar or larger rope
Roundhouse The officers` head, at the front of the ship, it was a small round cubicle that provided privacy and protection from the elements, a name given in East Indiamen and other large merchant ships, to square cabins built on the after-part of the qu
Rowlocks - rollocks Places cut in the gunwale of a boat for the oar to rest in while pulling
Royal A light sail next above a topgallant sail
Royal yard The yard from which the royal is set, the fourth from the deck
Rubber A small instrument used to rub or flatten down the seams of a sail in sail making
Rudder A fin or blade attached under the hullãs sstern used for steering
Run The after part of a vessel`s bottom, which rises and narrows in approaching the sternpost
By the run To let go by the run, is to let go altogether, instead of slacking off
Rung-heads The upper ends of the floor-timbers
Runner A rope used to increase the power of a tackle, it is rove through a single block which you wish to bring down, and a tackle is hooked to each end, or to one end, the other being made fast
Running lights Navigation lights tell other vessels not only where you are, but what you are doing
Running rigging Lines which run through pulleys and block and tackle, that are used to adjust the sails and yards
Saddles Pieces of wood hollowed out to fit on the yards to which they are nailed, having a hollow in the upper part for the boom to rest in
Sag To sag to leeward, is to drift off bodily to leeward
Sail A piece of cloth that catches the wind and so powers a vessel, they are of two kinds: square sails, which hang from yards, their foot lying across the line of the keel, as the courses, topsails and fore-and-aft sails, which set upon gaffs, or on
Sail ho! The cry used when a sail is first discovered at sea
Sailing rig the equipment used to sail a boat, including sails, booms and gaffs, lines and blocks
Salon - saloon Main social cabin of a boat
Save-all A small sail sometimes set under the foot of a lower studdingsail, See Water Sail
Scandalize Method of reducing sail by taking up the tack and lowering the peak on fore and aft sails, on a square rig ship the yards are not set square to the masts when the ship is at anchor, used as a sign for mourning or a death on board, mid 19th cent al
Scantling A term applied to any piece of timber, with regard to its breadth and thickness, when reduced to the standard size
Scarf To join two pieces of timber at their ends by shaving them down and placing them over-lapping
Schooner sailing ships with at least 2 masts (foremast and mainmast) with the mainmast being the taller, word derives from the term schoon/scoon meaning to move smoothly and quickly (a 3-masted vessel is called a tern)
A fore-and Aft schooner has only fore-and-aft sails, a topsail schooner carries a square fore topsail, and frequently, also, topgallant sail and royal, there are some schooners with three masts, they also have no tops, a main-topsail schooner is one that
Score A groove in a block or dead-eye
Scotchman A large batten placed over the turnings-in of rigging, see Batten
Scraper A small, triangular iron instrument, with a handle fitted to its center, and used for scraping decks and masts
Scrowl A piece of timber bolted to the knees of the head, in place of a figure-head
Scud To drive before a gale, with no sail, or only enough to keep the vessel ahead of the sea, also low, thin clouds that fly swiftly before the wind
Scull A short oar
To sculll To impel a boat by one oar at the stern
Scuppers Holes cut in the water-ways for the water to run from the decks
Scuttle A hole cut in a vessel`s deck, as a hatchway, also a hole cut in any part of a vessel
To scuttle To cut or bore holes in a vessel to make her sink
Scuttlebutt See Butt
Scuppers Holes through the shipsides, which drain water at, deck level over the side
Scrimshaw A sailors carving or etching on bones, teeth, tusks or shells
Scurvy Disease historically common to seaman, was caused by lack of Vitamin C
Sea cock A through hull valve, a shut off on a plumbing or drain pipe between the vessel`s interior and the sea boat
Seams The intervals between planks in a vessel`s deck or side
Semi Dreadnoughts included an intermediate battery of 8-10 inch guns
Secure To make fast
Seize To fasten ropes together by turns of small stuff
Seizings The fastenings of ropes that are seized together
Selvagee A skein of rope-yarns or spunyarn, marled together, used as a neat strap
Send When a ship`s head or stern pitches suddenly and violently into the trough of the sea
Sennit - sinnit A braid, formed by plaiting rope-yarns or spunyarn together, straw, plaited in the same way for hats, is called sennit
Serve To wind small stuff, as rope-yarns, spunyarn, round a rope, to keep it from chafing, it is wound and hove round taut by a serving-board or mallet
Service The stuff so wound round
Set To set up rigging, is to tauten it by tackles, the seizings are then put on afresh
Shackles Links in a chain cable, which are fitted with a movable bolt so that the chain can be separated
Shakes The staves of hogsheads taken apart
Shank The main piece in an anchor, at one end of which the stock is made fast, and at the other the arms
Shank-painter A strong rope by which the lower part of the shank of an anchor is secured to the ship`s side
Sharp up Said of yards when braced as near fore-and-aft as possible
Sheathing A casing or covering on a vessel`s bottom
Shears Two or more spars, raised at angles and lashed together near their upper ends, used for taking in masts
Shear hulk An old vessel fitted with shears and used for taking out and putting in the masts of other vessels
Sheave The wheel in a block upon which the rope works
Sheave-hole the place cut in a block for the ropes to reeve through
Sheep-shank A kind of hitch or bend, used to shorten a rope temporarily
Sheer - sheer-strake The line of plank on a vessel`s side, running fore-and-aft under the gunwale, also a vessel`s position when riding by a single anchor
Sheet A rope used in setting a sail, to keep the clew down to its place, with square sails, the sheets run through each yard-arm, with boom sails, they haul the boom over one way and another, they keep down the inner clew of a studdingsail and the after
Sheet-anchor A vessel`s largest anchor not carried at the bow
Sheetbend Knot used to tie two ropes of unequal thickness together
Shell The principal function of the shell is to act as a watertight skin, it also gives strength to the construction of intermediate parts, the outer part or body of a block in which the sheave revolves
Shellback An old sailor who has a vast knowledge of seamanship and who is able to pass on their knowledge, the name come from being at sea for so long seashells grew on his back, can also be used to identify an old fashion seaman
Shingle See Ballast
Shiver To shake the wind out of a sail by bracing it so that the wind strikes upon the leech
Shoe A piece of wood used for the bill of an anchor to rest upon, to save the vessel`s side, also for the heels of shears
Shoe-block A block with two sheaves, one above the other, the one horizontal and the other perpendicular
Shore A prop or stanchion, placed under a beam
To shore To prop up
Shroud A line or wire running from the top of the mast to the spreaders, then attaching to the side of the vessel
Signals Certain alarms or notices used to communicate intelligence to a distant object at sea, signals are made by firing artillery, and displaying colours, lanthorns, or fire-works and these are combined by multiplication and repetition
Sills Pieces of timber put in horizontally between the frames to form and secure any opening as, for ports
Sister block A long piece of wood with two sheaves in it, one above the other, with a score between them for a seizing, and a groove around the block, lengthwise
Skids Pieces of timber placed up and down a vessel`s side, to bear any articles off clear that are hoisted in
Skin The part of a sail, which is outside and covers the rest when it is furled, also familiarly, the sides of the hold as, an article is said to be stowed next the skin
Skysail A light sail next above the royal
Sky-scraper A name given to a skysail when it is triangular
Slabline A small line used to haul up the foot of a course
Slack The part of a rope or sail that hangs down loose
Slack in stays Said of a vessel when she works slowly in tacking
Sleepers The knees that connect the transoms to the after timbers on the ship`s quarter
Sling To set a cask, spar, gun, or other article, in ropes, so as to put on a tackle and hoist or lower it
Slings The ropes used for securing the center of a yard to the mast, Yard-slings are now made of iron, also a large rope fitted so as to go round any article, which is to be hoisted or lowered
Slip To let a cable go and stand out to sea
Slip-rope A rope bent to the cable just outside the hawsehole, and brought in on the weather quarter, for slipping
Sloop A single-masted fore-and-aft-rigged sailing vessel with a single headsail set from the forestay
Sloop of war A vessel of any rig, mounting between 18 and 32 guns
Slue To turn anything round or over
Small stuff The term for spunyarn, marline, and the smallest kinds of rope, such as ratline-stuff
Snake To pass small stuff across a seizing, with marling hitches at the outer turns
Snatch block A single block, with an opening in its side below the sheave, or at the bottom, to receive the bight of a rope
Snotter A rope going over a yard-arm, with an eye, used to bend a tripping-line to in sending down topgallant and royal yards in vessels of war
Snow A kind of brig, formerly used
Snub To check a rope suddenly
Snying A term for a circular plank edgewise, to work in the bows of a vessel
Spar A pole or a beam
Spreaders Small spars between the mast and shrouds
Spring line A line tied between two opposing forces that has a neutralizing effect, at the dock with a bow line and stern line tied off, a spring line is often added to limit the movements of a vessel even more
So! An order to vast hauling upon anything when it has come to its right position
Sole The inside deck of the ship, a piece of timber fastened to the foot of the rudder, to make it level with the false keel
Sound To get the depth of water by a lead and line, an iron-sounding rod, marked with a scale of feet and inches, sounds the pumps
Span A rope with both ends made fast, for a purchase to be hooked to its bight
Spanker The after sail of a ship or bark, it is a fore-and-aft sail, setting with a boom and gaff
Spar The general term for all masts, yards, booms, gaffs
Spell The common term for a portion of time given to any work, to spell is to relieve another at his work, Spell ho! An exclamation used as an order or request to be relieved at work by another
Spencer A fore-and-aft sail, set with a gaff and no boom, and hoisting from a small mast called a spencer-mast, just abaft the fore and main masts
Spill To shake the wind out of a sail by bracing it so that the wind may strike its leech and shiver it
Spilling line A rope used for spilling a sail, rove in bad weather
Spindle An iron pin upon which the capstan moves, also a piece of timber forming the diameter of a made mast, also any long pin or bar upon which anything revolves
Spinnaker A large triangular sail carried forward of the main mast on modern sailing ships, used when running before the wind, first introduced on the yatch Sphinx during the 1870`s and origionally called a Spinxer
Spirketing The planks from the waterways to the port-sills
Splice To join two ropes together by interweaving their strands
Spoon To run befor a gale (scud)
Spoondrift Water swept from the tops of the waves by the violence of the wind in a tempest, and driven along before it, covering the surface of the sea
Spray An occasional sprinkling dashed from the top of a wave by the wind, or by its striking an object
Spring To crack or split a mast, to spring a leak, is to begin to leak, to spring a luff, is to force a vessel close to the wind, in sailing
Spring-stay A preventer-stay, to assist the regular one, see Stay
Spring tides The highest and lowest course of tides, occurring every new and full moon
Sprit A small boom or gaff, used with some sails in small boats, the lower end rests in a becket or snotter by the foot of the mast, and the other end spreadsß and raises the outer upper corner of the sail, crossing it diagonally, a sail so rigged in a
Sprit-sail-yard A yard lashed across the bowsprit or knight-heads, and used to spread the guys of the jib and flying jib-boom, there was formerly a sail bent to it called a sprit-sail
Spunyarn A cord formed by twisting together two or three rope-yarns
Spurling line A line communicating between the tiller and tell-tale
Spurs Pieces of timber fixed on the bilge-ways, their upper ends being bolted to the vessel`s sides above the water, also curved pieces of timber, serving as half beams, to support the decks where whole beams cannot be placed
Spur-shoes Large pieces of timber that come abaft the pump-well
Square Yards are squared when they are horizontal and at right angles with the keel, squaring by the lifts makes them horizontal and by the braces, makes them at right angles with the vessel`s line, also the proper term for the length of yards, a vessel
Square rig A ship carrying square sails
Square-sail Is the oldest type of sail, its is a square or rectangular sail held horizontal by a yard
A temporary sail Set at the fore-mast of a schooner or sloop when going before the wind, see Sail
Square knot Used for tying two ropes together
Squall A sudden violent blast of wind
Stay A line or wire from the mast to the bow or stern of a ship, for support of the mast (fore, back, running, and triadic stays)
Starboard Right side of the ship when facing forward
Standing rigging Shrouds and stays that secure the yards and mast in place
Stay sail any sail attached to a stay
Stem The timber at the very front of the bow
Stern After end of a vessel
Stabber A Pricker
Staff A pole or mast, used to hoist flags upon
Stanchions Upright posts of wood or iron, placed so as to support the beams of a vessel, also upright pieces of timber, placed at intervals along the sides of a vessel, to support the bulwarks and rail, and reaching down to the bends, by the side of the timb
Stand by! An order to be prepared
Standard An inverted knee, placed above the deck instead of beneath it as, bill-standard
Standing The standing part of a rope is that part which is fast, in opposition to the part that is hauled upon or the main part, in opposition to the end, the standing part of a tackle is that part which is made fast to the blocks and between that and the
Standing rigging That part of a vessel`s rigging, which is made fast and not, hauled upon, see Running
Starboard The right side of a vessel, looking forward
Star bowlines The familiar term for the men in the starboard watch
Start To start a cask, is to open it
Stay To tack a vessel, or put her about, so that the wind, from being on one side, is brought upon the other, round the vessel`s head, see Tack, Wear, to stay a mast, is to incline it forward or aft, or to one side or the other, by the stays and backst
Stays Large ropes, used to support masts, and leading from the head of some mast down to some other mast, or to some part of the vessel, those, which lead forward, are called fore-and-aft stays and those which lead down to the vessel`s sides, backstays,
In stays - hore in stays The situation of a vessel when she is staying, or going about from one tack to the other
Staysail A sail, which hoists upon a stay
Steady! An order to keep the helm as it is
Steer To control the direction of a vessel via the steering gear
To steer small To keep a vessel on course with only small movements of the steering gear
To steer large The opposite to steer small
Steerage That part of the between-decks which is just forward of the cabin
Steeve A bowsprit steeves more or less, according as it is raised more or less from the horizontal, the steeve is the angle it makes with the horizon, also, a long, heavy spar, with a place to fit a block at one end, and used in stowing certain kinds of
Stem A piece of timber reaching from the forward end of the keel, to which it is scarfed, up to the bowsprit, and to which the two sides of the vessel are united
Stemson A piece of compass-timber, fixed on the after part of the apron inside, the lower end is scarfed into the keelson, and receives the scarf of the stem, through which it is bolted
Step A block of wood secured to the keel, into which the heel of the mast is placed, to step a mast is to put it in its step
Stern Heck The after end of a vessel, see By the stern
Stern-board The motion of a vessel when going sternforemost
Stern-frame The frame composed of the sternpost transom and the fashion-pieces
Sternpost The aftermost timber in a ship, reaching from the after end of the keel to the deck, the stem and sternpost are the two extremes of a vessel`s frame
Inner sternpost A post on the inside, corresponding to the sternpost
Stern sheets The after part of a boat, abaft the rowers, where the passengers sit
Stern-way The movement by which a ship retreats, or falls backward, with her stern foremost
Stiff The quality of a vessel, which enables it to carry a great deal of sail without lying over-much on her side, the opposite to crank
Stirrups Ropes with thimbles at their ends, through which the footropes are rove, and by which they are kept up toward the yards
Stock A beam of wood, or a bar of iron, secured to the upper end of the shank of an anchor, at right angles with the arms, an iron stock usually goes with a key, and unships
Stocks The frame upon which a vessel is built
Stools Small channels for the deadeyes of the backstays
Stopper A stout rope with a knot at one end, and sometimes a hook at the other, used for various purposes about decks as, making fast a cable, so as to overhaul, see Cat Stopper, Deck Stopper
Stopper bolts Ringbolts to which the deck stoppers are secured
Stop A fastening of small stuff, also small projections on the outside of the cheeks of a lower mast, at the upper parts of the hounds
Strand A number of rope-yarns twisted together, three, four or nine strands twisted together form a rope, a rope is stranded when one of its strands is parted or broken by chafing or by a strain, a vessel is stranded when she is driven on shore
Strap A piece of rope spliced rounds a block to keep its parts well together, some blocks have iron straps, in which case they are called iron bound
Streak - strake A range of planks running fore-and-aft on a vessel`s side
Stream The stream anchor is one used for warping and sometimes as a lighter anchor to moor by, with a hawser, it is smaller than the bowers, and larger than the kedges, to stream a buoy, is to drop it into the water
Stretchers Pieces of wood placed across a boat`s bottom, inside, for the oarsmen to press their feet against, in rowing, also cross pieces placed between a boat`s sides to keep them apart when hoisted up and griped
Strike To lower a sail or colors
Studdingsails Light sails set outside the square sails, on booms rigged out for that purpose, they are only carried with a fair wind and in moderate weather
Sued - sewed The condition of a ship when she is high and dry on shore, if the water leaves her two feet, she sues, or is sued, two feet
Supporters The knee-timbers under the catheads
Surf The breaking of the sea upon the shore
Surge A large, swelling wave, to surge a rope or cable is to slack it up suddenly where it renders round a pin, or round the windlass or capstan
Surge ho! The notice given when a cable is to be surged
Swab A mop, formed of old rope, used for cleaning and drying decks
Sweep To drag the bottom for an anchor, also large oars used in small vessels to force them ahead
Swift To bring two shrouds or stays close together by ropes
Swifter The forward shroud to a lower-mast, also ropes used to confine the capstan bars to their places when shipped
Swig A term used by sailors for the mode of hauling off upon the bight of a rope when its lower end is fast
Swivel A long link of iron, used in chain cables, made so as to turn upon an axis and keep the turns out of a chain
Syphering Lapping the edges of planks over each other for a bulkhead
Tabling Letting one beam-piece into another, see Scarfing, also the broad hem on the borders of sails, to which the bolt-rope is sewed
Tack To put a ship about, so that from having the wind on one side, you bring it round on the other by the way of her head, the opposite of wearing
Tack A vessel is on the starboard tack, or has her starboard tacks on board, when she has the wind on her starboard side
Tack The rope or tackle by which the weather clew of a course is hauled forward and down to the deck
Tack The lower forward corner of the sail
Tack The tack of a fore-and-aft sail is the rope that keeps down the lower forward clew and of a studdingsail, the lower outer clew, the tack of the lower studdingsail is called the outhaul, also that part of a sail in which the tack is attached
Tackle (Pronounced tay-cle), a purchase, formed by a rope rove through one or more blocks
Taffrail - tafferel The rail round a ship`s stern
Taffrail log A propeller drawn through the water that operates a meter on the boat registering the speed and distance sailed
Tail A rope spliced into the end of a block and used for making it fast to rigging or spars, such a block is called a tail-block, a ship is said to tail up or down stream, when at anchor, according as her stern swings up or down with the tide in op
Tail-tackle A watch-tackle
Tail on! - tally on! An order given to take hold of a rope and pull
Tampion - tompion Meaning a plug for a gun-muzzle dates from about 1480, Originally, it referred to a piece of cloth, used as a stopper
Tank An iron vessel placed in the hold to contain the vessel`s water
Tar A liquid gum, taken from pine and fir trees, and used for caulking, and to put upon yarns in rope-making, and upon standing rigging, to protect it from the weather
Tarpaulin A piece of canvass, covered with tar, used for covering hatches, boats, etc, also the name commonly given to a sailor`s hat when made of tarred or painted cloth
Taut Tight
Taunt High or tall, commonly applied to a vessel`s masts, all-a-taunt-o, said of a vessel when she has all her light and tall masts and spars aloft
Tell tale A compass hanging from the beams of the cabin, which may know the heading of a vessel at any time, also an instrument connected with the barrel of the wheel, and traversing so that the officer may see the position of the tiller
Tend To watch a vessel at anchor at the turn of tides, and cast her by the helm, and some sail if necessary, so as to keep turns out of her cables
Tenon The heel of a mast, made to fit into the step
Thick-and-thin block A block having one sheave larger than the other, sometimes used for quarter-blocks
Thimble An iron ring, having its rim concaves on the outside for a rope or strap to fit snugly round
Thole pins Pins in the gunwale of a boat, between which an oar rests when pulling, instead of a rowlock
Throat The inner end of a gaff, where it widens and hollows in to fit the mast, see Jaws, also the hollow part of a knee
The throat brails Halyards, are those that hoist or haul up the gaff or sail near the throat, also the angle where the arm of an anchor is joined to the shank
Thrum To stick short strands of yarn through a mat or piece of canvass, to make a rough surface
Thus See Dyce
Thwarts The seats going across a boat, upon which the oarsmen sit
Thwartships See Athwartships
Tide To tide up or down a river or harbor, is to work up or down with a fair tide and head wind or calm, coming to anchor when the tide turns
Tide-rode The situation of a vessel, at anchor, when she swings by the force of the tide, in opposition to wind-rode
Tier A range of casks, also the range of the fakes of a cable or hawser, the cable tier is the place in a hold or between decks where the cables are stowed
Tiller A bar of wood or iron, put into the head of the rudder, by which the rudder is moved
Tiller-ropes Ropes leading from the tiller-head round the barrel of the wheel, by which a vessel is steered
Timber A general term for all large pieces of wood used in shipbuilding, also more particularly, long pieces of wood in a curved form, bending outward, and running from the keel up, on each side, forming the ribs of a vessel, the keel, stem, sternposts a
Timber heads The ends of the timbers that come above the decks, used for belaying hawsers and large ropes
Timenoguy A rope carried taut between different parts of the vessel, to prevent the sheet or tack of a course from getting foul, in working ship
Toggle A pin placed through the bight or eye of a rope, block-strap, or bolt, to keep it in its place, or to put the bight or eye of another rope upon, and thus to secure them both together
Top A platform, placed over the head of a lower mast, resting on the trestletrees, to spread the rigging, and for the convenience of men aloft, to top up a yard or boom, is to raise up one end of it by hoisting on the lift
Top-block A large ironbound block, hooked into a bolt under the lower cap, and used for the top-rope to reeve throug
Topgallant mast The third mast above the deck
Topgallantsail The third sail above the deck
Top-light A signal lantern carried in the top
Top-lining A lining on the after part of sails, to prevent them from chafing against the top-rim
Topmast A second spar carried at the top of the fore or main mast, used to fly more sail
Topping lift A line or wire for lifting the boom
Top-rope The rope used for sending topmasts up and down
Topsail The second sail above the deck
Topsail schooner A schooner with a square rigged sail on forward mast
Top timbers The highest timbers on a vessel`s side, being above the futtocks
Toss To throw an oar out of the rowlock, and raise it perpendicularly on its end, and lay it down in the boat, with its blade forward
Touch A sail is said to touch, when the wind strikes the leech so as to shake it a little, Luff and touch her! The order to bring the vessel up and see how near she will go to the wind
Tow To draw a vessel along by means of a rope
Train-tackle The tackle used for running guns in and out
Transom the planking that forms the stern and closes off the sides
Transom-knees Knees bolted to the transoms and after timbers
Traveller An iron ring, fitted so as to slip up and down a rope
Traverses These are the ribs or frames of the ship, and when placed in position, give the principal shape or contour, Transverses are not all the same distance apart amidships
Treenails - trunnels Long wooden pins, used for nailing a plank to a timber
Trend The lower end of the shank of an anchor, being the same distance on the shank from the throat that the arm measures from the throat to the bill
Trestle-trees Two strong pieces of timber, placed horizontally and fore-and-aft on opposite sides of a mast-head, to support the cross-trees and top, and for the fid of the mast above to rest upon
Triatic stay A rope secured at each end to the heads of the fore and main masts, with thimbles spliced into its bight, to hook the stay tackles to
Trice To haul up by means of a rope
Trick The time allotted to a man to stand at the helm
Trim The condition of a vessel, with reference to her cargo and ballast, a vessel is trimmed by the head or by the stern, in ballast trim, is when she has only ballast on board, also, to arrange the sails by the braces with reference to the wind
Trip To raise an anchor clear of the bottom
Tripping line A line used for tripping a topgallant or royal yard in sending it down
Truck A circular piece of wood, placed at the head of the highest mast on a ship, it has small holes or sheaves in it for signal halyards to be rove through, also the wheel of a gun-carriage
Trunnions The arms on each side of a cannon by which it rests upon the carriage, and on which, as an axis, it is elevated or depressed
Truss The rope by which the centre of a lower yard is kept in toward the mast
Trysail A fore-and-aft sail, set with a boom and gaff, and hoisting on a small mast abaft the lower mast, called a trysail-mast, this name is generally confined to the sail so carried at the mainmast of a full-rigged brig, those carried at the foremast an
Tumbling home Said of a ship`s sides when they fall in above the bends, the opposite of wall-sided
Turn Passing a rope once or twice round a pin or kevel, to keep it fast, also two crosses in a cable
To turn in or turn out Nautical terms for going to rest in a berth or hammock, and getting up from them
Turn up! The order given to send the men up from between decks
Tye A rope connected with a yard, to the other end of which a tackle is attached for hoisting
Unbend To cast off or untie, see Bend
Underway Vessel in motion, when not moored, at anchor, or aground
Union The upper inner corner of an ensign, the rest of the flag is called the fly, the union of the US ensign is a blue field with white stars, and the fly is composed of alternate white and red stripes
Union-down The situation of a flag when it is hoisted upside down, bringing the union down instead of up, used as a signal of distress
Union jack A small flag, containing only the union, without the fly, usually hoisted at the bowsprit-cap
Unmoor To heave up one anchor so that the vessel may ride at a single anchor, see Moor
Unship See Ship
Uvrou See Euvrou
V-berth usually the forward berth of the boat, located in the bow
Vane A small flag worn at each mast head to show wind direction
Vhf very high frequency radio
Vang A rope leading from the peak of the gaff of a fore-and-aft sail to the rail on each side, and used for steadying the gaff
Vast (written `vast) See Avast
Veer Said of the wind when it changes, also to slack a cable and let it run out, see Pay, to veer and haul, is to haul and slack alternately on a rope, as in warping, until the vessel or boat gets headway
Viol - voyal A larger messenger sometimes used in weighing an anchor by a capstan, also the block through which the messenger passes
Wad Quantity of old rope-yarns, rolled firmly together into the form of a ball, and used to confine the shot or shell, together with its charge of powder, in the breech of a piece of artillery
Waft Signal displayed from the stern of a ship for some particular purpose, by hoisting the ensign, furled up together into a long roll, to the head of its staff, it is particularly used to summon the boats off from the shore to the ship whereto they b
Waist That part of the upper deck between the quarterdeck and forecastle
Waisters Green hands, or broken-down seamen, placed in the waist of a man-of-war
Wake Moving waves, track or path that a boat leaves behind it, when moving thru the water
Wales Strong planks in a vessel`s sides, running her whole length fore and aft
Wale-reared An obselete phrase, implying wall-sided
Wall A knot put on the end of a rope
Wall-sided A vessel is wall-sided when her sides run up perpendicularly from the bends, in opposition to tumbling home or flaring out
Walt An obsolete or spurious term signifying crank
Ward-room The room in a vessel of war in which the commissioned officers live
Ware - wear To turn a vessel round, so that, from having the wind on one side, you bring it upon the other, carrying her stern round by the wind, in tacking, the same result is produced by carrying a vessel`s head round by the wind
Warp To move a vessel from one place to another by means of a rope made fast to some fixed object, or to a kedge, a warp is a rope used for warping, if the warp is bent to a kedge, which is let go, and the vessel is hove ahead by the capstan or windlas
Wash-boards Light pieces of board placed above the gunwale of a boat
Watch A division of time on board ship, there are seven watches in a day, reckoning from 12 M round through the 24 hours, five of them being of four hours each, and the two others, called dog watches, of two hours each, viz, from 4 to 6, and from 6 to 8
Watch-and-watch The arrangement by which the watches are alternated every other four hours, in distinction from keeping all hands during one or more watches
Anchor watch A small watch of one or two men, kept while in port
Watch ho! Watch! The cry of the man that heaves the deep-sea-lead
Watch-tackle A small luff purchase with a short fall, the double block having a tail to it, and the single one a hook, used for various purposes about decks
Water line The line made by the water`s edge when a ship has her full proportion of stores, and crew on board
Water-boards - weather-boards To keep out the waves or spray of the sea
Water boune The state of a ship, with regard to the water surrounding her bottom, when there is barely a sufficient depth of it to float her off from the ground, particularly when she had for some time rested thereon
Water logged The state of a ship when, by receiving a great quantity of water into her hold, by leaking, she has become heavy and inactive upon the sea, so as to yield without resistance to the efforts of every wave rushing over her decks, as in this dangerous
Water sail A save-all, set under the swinging-boom
Water shot See Mooring
Water spout An extraordinary and dangerous meteor, consisting of a large mass of water, collected into a sort of column by the force of a whirlwind, and moved with rapidity along the surface of the sea
Waterways Long pieces of timber, running fore and aft on both sides, connecting the deck with the vessel`s sides, the scuppers are made through them to let the water off
Way Of a ship, the course or progress which the makes on the water under sail, thus when she begins her motion, she is said to be under way and when that motion increases, she is said to have fresh way through the water, hence also she is said to have
Wear See Ware
Weather Is known to be the particular state of the air with regard to the degree of the wind, to heat or cold, or to driness and moisture
Weather Is also used as an adjective, applied by mariners to every thing lying to windward of a particular situation, thus a ship is laid to have the weather-gage of another, when the is further to-windward, thus also when a ship under sail presents eithe
Weather beaten Shattered by a storm, or disabled in battle
Weather gage A vessel has the weather gage of another when she is to windward of her
A weatherly ship is one that works well to windward, making but little leeway
To weather To sail to windward of some ship, bank, or head-land
Weather-bitt To take an additional turn with a cable round the windlass-end
Weather roll The roll, which a ship makes to windward
Weigh - to haul up Weigh the anchor
Wheel device used for steering a boat
Whip A purchase formed by a rope rove through a single block, to whip, is to hoist by a whip, also to secure the end of a rope from fagging by a seizing of twine, Whip-upon-whip, one whip applied to the fall of another
Widow-maker A term for the bowsprit (many sailors lost their lives falling off the bowsprit while tending sails)
Winch A purchase formed by a horizontal spindle or shaft with a wheel or crank at the end, a small one with a wheel is used for making ropes or spunyarn
Windjammer A square-rigged commercial sailing ship used as an insulting term by steamboat sailors
Windlass The machine used in merchant vessels to weigh the anchor by
Wind-rode The situation of a vessel at anchor when she swings and rides by the force of the wind, instead of the tide or current, see Tide-Rode
Wing That part of the hold or between-decks which is next the side
Wingers Casks stowed in the wings of a vessel
Wing-and-wing The situation of a fore-and-aft vessel when she is going dead before the wind, with her foresail hauled over on one side and her mainsail on the other
Withe - wythe An iron instrument fitted on the end of a boom or mast, with a ring to it, through which another boom or mast is rigged out and secured
Woold To wind a piece of rope round a spar, or other thing
Work up To draw the yarns from old rigging and make them into spunyarn, foxes, sennit, also, a phrase for keeping a crew constantly at work upon needless matters, and in all weathers, and beyond their usual hours, for punishment
Worm Worm and parcel with the lay, turn and serve the other way, organic standing rigging was wormed, parcelled, and served in areas under great stress or potential friction: bobstays, stay and shroud eyes, pendants, sometimes the entire forward shroud
Wring To bend or strain a mast by setting the rigging up too taut
Wring-bolts Bolts that secure the planks to the timbers
Wring-staves Strong pieces of plank used with the wring-bolts
Xebec See Zebec
Yankee A foresail flying above and forward of thee jib, usually seen on bowsprit vessels
Yard A long piece of timber or spar, tapering slightly toward the ends, and hung by the centre to a mast, to spread the square sails upon
Yardarm The extremities of a yard
Yardarm and yardarm The situation of two vessels, lying alongside one another, so near that their yardarms cross or touch
Yarn See Rope-Yarn
Yaw The motion of a vessel when she goes off from her course
Yawl boat Smaller powered boat used to provide steerageway when not under sail
Yawing The motion of a ship when she deviates from to the right or left
Yellow admiral a post captain is posted to rear admiral on retirement without serving in that rank
Yellow jack Term used for yellow fever, used for quarantine flag which is coloured yellow, a naval pensioner in Greenwich Hospital who is too fond of his liquor and wore a yellow colour coat to denote this
Yeoman A officer under the boatswain employed in a vessel of war to take charge of a storeroom as, boatswain`s yeoman the man that has charge of the stores, of rigging
Yoke A piece of wood placed across the head of a boat`s rudder, with a rope attached to each end, by which the boat is steered
Zebeck A small three-masted Mediterranean vessel with lanteen and some square sails
Zenith In nautical astronomy a point imediately above an observer, coresspond to a straight line from the centre of the earth through the observer to the zenith
Zulu A fishing vessel from the north-east of scotland
Zulu time GMT- Greenwich Meridian Time, also known as Universal Time
Aft Toward the rear, or transom, of a ship
Bank Underwater plateau that rises up from the ocean floor, creating shallow water where fish feed
Beam a boat`s widest point, usually near the middle of the boat
Beam trawling Method of fishing which uses a beam to hold open a net at its mouth
Below Beneath or under the deck
Block and tackle Arrangement of pulleys and line which increases hoisting power for heavy work, such as pulling in the sail in a strong breeze
Boom Long piece of wood which runs perpendicular to the mast, to which the foot (bottom edge) of the sail is attatched
Bow The front section of a boat
Buoy A distinctively marked object that floats in the water as a navigational marker
Buoyancy Ability to float or rise in a fluid
Chart A map of part of the sea, showing currents, depths, islands, coasts, etc
Compass An instrument for showing the directions of north, south, west, & east
Dragging Method of fishing in which a net is pulled behind the boat
Fathom Unit of water depth equivalent to 6 feet
Flotsam Any stuff floating - trees, driftwood, wreckage, etc
Forward Toward the bow or stem
Hull The body of a boat
Jetsam Those things that sink in the water - they don`t float like flotsam
Jettison To throw overboard
Knot Speed through water, the velocity in nautical miles (6,080 feet) per hour, also turns taken in a line for fastening
Landlubber What you are if you`re not a seaman
Ledges Underwater rock ridges and mountains that rise near the surface of the sea
Legend A group of symbols and definitions on a chart or map
Log Record of details of a voyage made by a ship`s captain or crew, also a device for measure
Maiden voyage A new boat`s first trip
Maritime Located on or near the sea
Nautical mile A measurement used by sailors that equals 6,080 feet (a land mile is 5,280 feet)
Navigate To steer or manage a ship, to sail or voyage over water
Port Left side of vessel when facing forward
Shoal An area of the sea that is shallow, especially at low tide
Skipper The captain of a ship
Starboard Right side of the vessel when facing forward
Staterooms Private cabins in a ship
Stern The rear section of the boat
Windjammer Large ship powered by wind and sails, used for pleasure cruising
Aboard A bordo Aan boord On or within the boat
Backstay Baquestay Achterstag Mast support running to aft deck or another mast, stays
Anemometer Anemometro Anemometer Anemometer Instrument to mesure the wind speed
Anchor Ancla Anker Anker A heavy metal device, fastened to a chain or line, to hold a vessel in position, partly because of its weight, but mainly because the designed shape digs into the bottom
Bay Bahía Baai Spacious opening in the sea coast, small draft and very open. Suitable as a shelter for boats
Port Babor Bakboord The left side of a boat looking forward, a harbor
Block Blok A wooden or metal case enclosing one or more pulleys and having a hook, eye, or strap by which it may be attached
Yacht Yate Jacht Yacht A vessel of pleasure or state
Cockpit Bañera Kuip An opening in the deck from which the boat is handled
Neap tides Bajamar Laagwater Low tides, coming at the middle of the moon`s second and fourth quarters, see Spring Tides
Adrift A la deriva Op dreef Broken from moorings or fasts, without Fasts

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